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北大法学远程教育《教学通讯》2006年第5期总第28
(适用于两院系统专升本学员)


 


关于“两院”系统学员2005级2006-2007学年注册缴费 和2006级2005-2007学年注册的通知


北京大学法学院远程(网络)教育法学专业 专科起点本科2006-2007学年课程设置和答疑安排


汪劲主任就两院系统学员参加全国“网考”有关问题答本刊记者问


北京大学法学院远程法学专业2006-2007学年课程教学执行计划


本学期专业课程作业


《大学英语2》


《大学英语3》


《刑法分论》课程的特点及学习方法


《商法》课程的特点、内容、体系及学习方法


《宪法学》课程的特点、内容、体系及教学方法


《中国法制史》课程的特点、内容、体系及教学方法


《财政税收法》课程的特点、内容、体系及教学方法


课程主讲教授简介

 


关于“两院”系统学员2005级2006-2007学年注册缴费
和2006级2005-2007学年注册的通知

    北京大学法学院远程(网络)教育法学专业2006-2007年度定于2006年9月11日开学。2005级秋和2006级春学员需要办理注册手续,2005级学员在办理开学注册手续时,需要同时缴纳2006-2007年度的学费,具体如下:
一、2005级第二学年(2006年9月-2007年7月)需缴纳学费总额的30%,即高中起点本科层次2600元,专科起点本科层次2000元整。
二、学员需将学费缴纳到注册地的省教学中心,在缴费的同时办理注册手续。
三、学员注册截止日期为2006年9月24日。请各地教学中心严格把握时间进度,以利于学员本学年的学籍注册以及统一返款工作。
四、教学中心将学员学费全额汇到北京大学帐号:
户名:北京大学
开户行:北京工商银行海淀镇支行
帐号:02000045090891311-51
汇款用途: x x 省法院(检察院)法学远程教育2005级学员学费
(汇款后请将汇款凭单传真到010-82667121以便及时查收)
六、教学中心将学员本学期的《学生注册登记表》、《注册情况统计表》邮寄到:北京大学法学院远程教育办公室,地址:北大太平洋科技发展中心14层(北京市海淀区海淀路52号 邮编100080)。

北京大学法学院远程教育办公室
二零零六年八月

 

北京大学法学院远程(网络)教育法学专业
专科起点本科2006-2007学年课程设置和答疑安排

    北京大学法学院远程(网络)教育法学专业专科起点本科2006-2007学年开学时间定于2006年9月11日,每门课程为期16周,前14周为授课时间,最后2周为复习和考试时间。考试时间暂定在2006年12 月。
具体安排为如下:

一、本学期课程设置

层次

课程

学分

备注

专科起点本科

2005级秋

专业课

刑法分论

4

北大发放

商法

4

北大发放

宪法学

4

北大发放

中国法制史

4

北大发放

财政税收法

4

北大发放

公共课

大学英语3

4

教材自购

2006级春

专业课

刑法分论

4

北大发放

商法

4

北大发放

宪法学

 

北大发放

中国法制史

4

北大发放

财政税收法

4

北大发放

公共课

大学英语2

4

教材自购

二、答疑时间安排(适用于2005级秋和2006级春专科起点本科和高中起点本科的学员)

课程

第一次

第二次

第三次

第四次

第五次

刑法总论

9月25日

10月10日

10月24日

11月6日

11月27日

刑法分论

9月26日

10月11日

10月25日

11月7日

11月28日

中国法制史

9月27日

10月12日

10月26日

11月8日

11月29日

物权法

9月28日

10月16日

10月30日

11月9日

11月30日

宪法学

9月29日

10月17日

10月31日

11月13日

12月4日

财政税收法

10月8日

10月18日

11月1日

11月14日

12月5日

商法

10月9日

10月19日

11月2日

11月15日

12月6日

注:1.答疑时间为答疑安排当日19:00-21:00;
2.此安排为暂定时间,最终答疑时间以网上通知为准;
3.答疑网址为:http://www.pkulaws.comhttp://edu.chinalawinfo.com

 

北京大学法学院远程教育办公室

二零零六年八月

 


汪劲主任就两院系统学员参加全国“网考”有关问题答本刊记者问

[编者按:2006年6月,北大法学远程教育05秋和06春两院系统学员参加了首次全国网络教育公共课程统一考试。鉴于这次“网考”尚属首次在全国范围内大规模举行,有许多问题需要进一步明确,本刊记者为此专门就“网考”问题走访了北大法学院远程教育办公室主任汪劲教授。]


问:您对两院系统学员今年参加网考成绩的总体情况如何评价?
汪:我从有关部门和单位得到了几组有关网考的大体数据,可以供我们参考:一是今年全国各网络院校的平均合格率,大约是70%;二是北大网院的平均合格率(含05秋和06春两院系统学员),基本上与全国一致也是70%;三是05秋和06春两院系统学员参加网考的平均合格率,不到50%。
北大网院的老师告诉我,如果在计算北大网院的平均合格率时不包含05秋和06春两院系统学员的成绩的话,北大网院的平均合格率大约在80%以上。所以,我也认为05秋和06春两院系统学员参加网考的平均合格率的确是稍微有些低的。但是,有一点应当注意,有许多报了名的学员因为各种原因未能参加考试,结果致使统计数据时将这些为参加考试的学员也统计在内变成了“分母”。因此,如果按照参加考试的学员人数计算,合格率的比率还会高一些。

问:有人反映说这次网考存在着许多不公正的地方,您是如何看待和分析05秋和06春两院系统学员这次网考成绩合格率的呢?
汪:网考之后,我利用论文答辩、巡讲和巡考的机会到一些学员较多的省、市两院系统看了看,的确有这样的反映。我认为,由于这次网考是第一次全国性的,而且教育部又全部委托奥鹏中心和电大操作,因此对于考试失利者而言难免会产生这样或者那样的看法。再加上全国各地电大在考试纪律和阅卷等方面可能存在着把握标准或者尺度不一致、或者少数地方有“部门利益”的考虑,所以出现所谓“不公正”之处是完全有可能的。对于这些问题,我们已经向学校做了报告。如果哪个单位或者部门、或者学员有证据能够证据问题的确存在的话,可以提交给我们。我想这些问题只能依靠下次考试时再行解决。
需要说明的是,不能将考试失利的所有因素都归咎于考试的组织者和执行者,这样也是不公正的。例如,除北大外,全国还有其他一些院校也参加了网考,大体上他们的合格率也在70%左右。
在我看来,我们05秋和06春两院系统学员的“底子”与北大其他学员、以及与其他院校的学员同处于一个层面上,也就是说大家都一样。之所以我们这次考试成绩不很理想,我看原因主要有二:一是我们从管理者到学员都对这种考试没有经验,没有真正把握考试的形式、方法以及技巧等内容,因此在对策上就没有针对性;二是学员自己也没有认真对待,例如计算机考试的试题绝大多数都在书本上,只要看看书就可以通过。

问:对于不通过的学员明年还要参加网考,对此我们将采取哪些对策措施呢?
汪:我们初步计划,今年下半年(11月份)的全国网考暂不组织学员参加,而是做好准备参加明年3月份的网考。
结合今年的网考试卷我们初步分析,如果稍作辅导,两院系统学员中大约90%以上是可以通过网考的。因此,我们将从下学期开始有计划地组织网考的辅导教学及其辅导资料的编辑工作,用4-5个月的时间为全体学员提供网考辅导和准备。
这一点请大家放心。我们不会轻易地让某个学员因为网考的问题而掉队的。

问:最后顺便问一问,今年的课程考试成绩如何?
汪:8月份组织的课程考试,总体情况是不错的。目前的成绩已经出来了,各门课程的平均合格率一般在90%以上。
但是,有少数学员(全国大约有50-60名)可能是因为网考成绩不理想的原因未能参加期末考试。我认为这种方法并不可取。我希望他们9月份继续参加学习。我已经说过,两院系统学员中90%以上是可以通过网考的,不要因为一次失利就放弃。
谢谢。

 

课程计划
北京大学法学院远程法学专业
2006-2007学年课程教学执行计划

《刑法分论》


第一周
第一章 刑法分论概述
第一节 刑法分论与刑法总论的关系(了解)
一、 刑法各论与刑法总论的关系
二、 研究刑法各论的意义和方法
第二节 刑法分则的体系(明确)
一、 犯罪的分类排列
二、 犯罪分类排列的依据
三、 犯罪分类排列的意义
第三节 刑法分则条文的结构(重点掌握)
一、 罪状
二、 罪名
三、 法定刑
第四节 法条竞合及其适用(重点掌握)
一、 法条竞合的概念和特征
二、 法条竞合的适用法律的原则
第二章 危害国家安全罪
第一节 危害国家安全罪概述(明确)
一、 危害国家安全罪的概念
二、 危害国家安全罪的特征
三、 危害国家安全罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的犯罪(重点掌握)
背叛国家罪。分裂国家罪。武装叛乱、暴乱罪。投敌叛变罪。间谍罪。为境外窃取、刺探、收买、非法提供国家秘密、情报罪。
第三节 本章的其他犯罪(了解)
煽动分裂国家罪。颠覆国家政权罪。煽动颠覆国家政权罪。资助危害国家安全犯罪活动罪。叛逃罪。资敌罪。
第二周
第三章 危害公共安全罪
第一节 危害公共安全罪概述(明确)
一、 危害公共安全罪的概念
二、 危害公共安全罪的特征
三、 危害公共安全罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
放火罪。爆炸罪。投毒罪。以危险方法危害公共安全罪。破坏交通工具罪。组织、领导、参加恐怖组织罪。劫持航空器罪。非法制造、买卖、运输、邮寄、储存枪支、弹药、爆炸物罪。盗窃、抢夺枪支、弹药、爆炸物罪。非法持有、私藏枪支、弹药罪。 交通肇事罪。重大责任事故罪。
第三节 本章的其他罪(了解)
决水罪。失火罪。过失决水罪。过失爆炸罪。过失投毒罪。过失以危险方法危害公共安全罪。破坏交通设施罪。破坏电力设备罪。破坏易燃易爆设备罪。过失损坏交通工具罪。过失损坏交通设施罪。过失损坏电力设备罪。过失损坏易燃易爆设备罪。劫持船只、汽车罪。暴力危及飞行安全罪。破坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施罪。过失损坏广播电视设施、公用电信设施罪。非法买卖、运输核材料罪。违规制造、销售枪支罪。抢劫枪支、弹药、爆炸物罪。非法出租、出借枪支罪。丢失枪支不报告罪。非法携带枪支、弹药、管制刀具、危险物品危及公共安全罪。重大飞行事故罪。铁路运营安全事故罪。重大劳动安全事故罪。危险物品肇事罪。工程重大安全事故罪。教育设施重大安全事故罪。消防责任事故罪。
第三、四、五周
第四章 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪
第一节 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪概述(明确)
一、 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪的概念
二、 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪的特征
三、 破坏社会主义市场经济秩序罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
生产、销售伪劣产品罪。生产、销售假药罪。生产、销售有毒、有害食品罪。走私普通货物、物品罪。
虚报注册资本罪。虚假出资、抽逃出资罪。公司、企业人员受贿罪。对公司、企业人员行贿罪。签定、履行合同失职被骗罪
伪造货币罪。内幕交易、泄露内幕信息罪。用帐外客户资金非法拆借、发放贷款罪。洗钱罪。
信用证诈骗罪。集资诈骗罪。贷款诈骗罪。信用卡诈骗罪。保险诈骗罪。
偷税罪。抗税罪。虚开增值税专用发票、用于骗取出口退税、抵扣税款发票罪。
假冒注册商标罪。侵犯著作权罪。侵犯商业秘密罪。
虚假广告罪。合同诈骗罪。非法经营罪。强迫交易罪。
第三节 本章的其他罪(了解)
生产、销售劣药罪。生产、销售不符合卫生标准的食品罪。生产、销售不符合标准的医用器材罪。生产、销售不符合安全标准的产品罪。生产、销售伪劣农药、兽药、化肥、种子罪。生产、销售不符合卫生标准的化妆品罪。
走私武器、弹药罪。走私核材料罪。走私假币罪。走私文物罪。走私贵重金属罪。走私淫秽物品罪。走私珍贵动物、珍贵动物制品罪。走私珍稀植物、珍稀植物制品罪。走私固体废物罪。
欺诈发行股票、债券罪。提供虚假财会报告罪。妨害清算罪。非法经营同类营业罪。为亲友非法牟利罪。徇私舞弊造成破产、亏损罪。徇私舞弊低价折股、出售国有资产罪。
出售、购买、运输假币罪。金融工作人员购买假币、以假币换取货币罪。持有、使用假币罪。变造货币罪。擅自设立金融机构罪。伪造、变造、转让金融机构经营许可证罪。高利转贷罪。非法吸收公众存款罪。伪造、变造金融票证罪。伪造、变造国家有价证券罪。伪造、变造股票、公司、企业债券罪。擅自发行股票、公司、企业债券罪。编造并传播证券交易虚假信息罪。诱骗投资者买卖证券罪。操纵证券交易价格罪。违法向关系人发放贷款罪。违法发放贷款罪。非法出具金融票证罪。对违法票据承兑、付款、保证罪。逃汇罪。
票据诈骗罪。金融凭证诈骗罪。有价证券诈骗罪。
逃避追缴欠税罪。骗取出口退税罪。伪造、出售伪造的增值税专用发票罪。非法出售增值税专用发票罪。非法购买增值税专用发票、购买伪造的增值税专用发票罪。非法制造、出售非法制造的用于骗取出口退税、抵扣税款发票罪。非法制造、出售非法制造的发票罪。非法出售用于骗取出口退税、抵扣税款发票罪。非法出售发票罪。
销售假冒注册商标的商品罪。非法制造、销售非法制造的注册商标标识罪。假冒专利罪。销售侵权复制品罪。
损害商业信誉、商品声誉罪。串通投标罪。伪造、倒卖伪造的有价票证罪。倒卖车票、船票罪。非法转让、倒卖土地使用权罪。中介组织人员提供虚假证明文件罪。中介组织人员出具证明文件重大失实罪。逃避商检罪。
第六、七、八周
第五章 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪
第一节 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪概述(明确)
一、 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪的概念
二、 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪的特征
三、 侵犯公民人身权利、民主权利罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
故意杀人罪。过失致人死亡罪。故意伤害罪。强奸罪。奸淫幼女罪。强制猥亵、侮辱妇女罪。非法拘禁罪。绑架罪。拐卖妇女、儿童罪。收买被拐卖的妇女儿童罪。诬告陷害罪。侮辱罪。诽谤罪。刑讯逼供罪。报复陷害罪。破坏选举罪。暴力干涉婚姻自由罪。重婚罪。破坏军婚罪。虐待罪。遗弃罪。
第三节 本章的基本罪(了解)
过失致人重伤罪。猥亵儿童罪。聚众阻碍解救被收买的妇女、儿童罪。强迫职工劳动罪。非法搜查罪。非法侵入住宅罪。暴力取证罪。虐待被监管人罪。煽动民族仇恨、民族歧视罪。出版歧视、侮辱少数民族作品罪。非法剥夺公民宗教信仰自由罪。侵犯少数民族风俗习惯罪。侵犯通信自由罪。私自开拆、隐匿、毁弃邮件、电报罪。打击报复会计、统计人员罪。拐骗儿童罪。
第九、十周
第六章 侵犯财产罪
第一节 侵犯财产罪概述(明确)
一、 侵犯财产罪的概念
二、 侵犯财产罪的特征
三、 侵犯财产罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
抢劫罪、盗窃罪。诈骗罪。抢夺罪。侵占罪。职务侵占罪。挪用资金罪。敲诈勒索罪。
第三节 本章的其他罪(了解)
聚众哄抢罪。挪用特定款物罪。故意毁坏财物罪。破坏生产经营罪。
第十一、十二周
第七章 妨害社会管理秩序罪
第一节 妨害社会管理秩序罪概述(明确)
一、 妨害社会管理秩序罪的概念
二、 妨害社会管理秩序罪的特征
三、 妨害社会管理秩序罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
妨害公务罪。招摇撞骗罪。非法侵入计算机信息系统罪。破坏计算机信息系统罪。聚众扰乱社会秩序罪。聚众斗殴罪。寻衅滋事罪。组织、领导、参加黑社会性质组织罪。传授犯罪方法罪。
伪证罪。窝藏、包庇罪。窝藏、转移、收购、销售赃物罪。拒不执行判决、裁定罪。脱逃罪。
组织他人偷越国(边)境罪。偷越国(边)境罪。
倒卖文物罪。盗掘古文化遗址、古墓葬罪。
非法组织卖血罪。医疗事故罪。
重大环境污染事故罪。非法捕捞水产品罪。非法猎捕、杀害珍贵、濒危野生动物罪。非法狩猎罪。盗伐林木罪。滥伐林木罪。
走私、贩卖、运输、制造毒品罪。非法持有毒品罪。引诱、教唆、期骗他人吸毒罪。
组织卖淫罪。强迫卖淫罪。协助组织卖淫罪。传播性病罪。
制作、复制、出版、贩卖、传播淫秽物品牟利罪。
第三节 本章的其他罪(了解)
煽动暴力抗拒法律实施罪。伪造、变造、买卖国家机关公文、证件、印章罪。盗窃、抢夺、毁灭国家机关公文、证件、印章罪。伪造公司、企业、事业单位、人民团体印章罪。伪造、变造居民身份证罪。非法生产、买卖警用装备罪。非法获取国家秘密罪。非法持有国家绝密、机密文件、资料、物品罪。非法生产、销售间谍专用器材罪。非法使用窃听、窃照专用器材罪。扰乱无线电通信管理秩序罪。聚众冲击国家机关罪。聚众扰乱公共场所秩序、交通秩序罪。入境发展黑社会组织罪。包庇、纵容黑社会性质组织罪。非法集会、游行、示威罪。侮辱国旗、国徽罪。组织、利用会道门、邪教组织、利用迷信破坏法律实施罪。组织、利用会道门、邪教组织、利用迷信致人死亡罪。聚众淫乱罪。引诱未成年人聚众淫乱罪。盗窃、侮辱尸体罪。赌博罪。故意延误投递邮件罪。
辩护人、诉讼代理人毁灭证据、伪造证据、妨害作证罪。妨害作证罪。帮助毁灭、伪造、证据罪。打击报复证人罪。扰乱法庭秩序罪。拒绝提供间谍犯罪证据罪。非法处置查封、扣押、冻结的财产罪。破坏监管秩序罪。劫夺被押解人员罪。组织越狱罪。暴动越狱罪。聚众持械劫狱罪。
骗取出境证件罪。提供伪造、变造的出入境证件罪。出售出入境证件罪。运送他人偷越国(边)境罪。破坏界碑、界桩罪。破坏永久性测量标志罪。
故意损毁文物罪。故意损毁名胜古迹罪。过失损毁文物罪。非法向外国人出售、赠送珍贵文物罪。非法出售、私赠文物藏品罪。盗掘古人类化石、古脊椎动物化石罪。抢夺、窃取国有档案罪。擅自出卖、转让国有档案罪。
妨害传染病防治罪。传染病菌种、毒种扩散罪。妨害国境卫生检疫罪。强迫卖血罪。非法采集、供应血液、制作、供应血液制品罪。采集、供应血液、制作、供应血液制品事故罪。非法行医罪。非法进行节育手术罪。逃避动植物检疫罪。
非法处置进口的固体废物罪。擅自进口固体废物罪。非法收购、运输、出售珍贵、濒危野生动物、珍贵、濒危野生动物制品罪。非法占用耕地罪。非法采矿罪。破坏性采矿罪。非法采伐、毁坏珍贵树木罪。非法收购盗伐、滥伐的林木罪。
包庇毒品犯罪分子罪。窝藏、转移、隐瞒毒品、毒赃罪。走私制毒物品罪。非法买卖制毒物品罪。非法种植毒品原植物罪。非法买卖、运输、携带、持有毒品原植物种子、幼苗罪。强迫他人吸毒罪。容留他人吸毒罪。非法提供麻醉药品、精神药品罪。
引诱、容留、介绍卖淫罪。引诱幼女卖淫罪。嫖宿幼女罪。
为他人提供书号出版淫秽书刊罪。传播淫秽物品罪。组织播放淫秽音像制品罪。组织淫秽表演罪。
第十三周
第八章 危害国防利益罪
第一节 危害国防利益罪概述(明确)
一、 危害国防利益罪的概念
二、 危害国防利益罪的特征
三、 危害国防利益罪的种类
第二节 危害国防利益罪的种类(了解)
阻碍军人执行职务罪。阻碍军事行动罪。破坏武器装备、军事设施、军事通信罪。接送不合格兵员罪。故意提供不合格武器装备、军事设施罪。过失提供不合格武器装备、军事设施罪。聚众冲击军事禁区罪。聚众扰乱军事管理区秩序罪。冒充军人招摇撞骗罪。煽动军人逃离部队罪。雇用逃离部队军人罪。伪造、变造、买卖军用标志罪。战时拒绝、逃避征召、军事训练罪。占时拒绝、逃避服役罪。战时故意提供虚假敌情罪。战时造谣扰乱军心罪。战时窝藏逃离部队军人罪。战时拒绝、故意延误军事订货罪。战时拒绝军事征用罪。
第九章 贪污贿赂罪
第一节 贪污贿赂罪概述(明确)
一、 贪污贿赂罪的概念
二、 贪污贿赂罪的特征
三、 贪污贿赂罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
贪污罪。挪用公款罪。受贿罪。行贿罪。巨额财产来源不明罪。
第三节 本章的其他罪(了解)
单位受贿罪。对单位行贿罪。介绍贿赂罪。单位行贿罪。隐瞒境外存款罪。私分罚没财物罪。私分国有资产罪。
第十四周
第十章 渎职罪
第一节 渎职罪概述(明确)
一、 渎职罪的概念
二、 渎职罪的特征
三、 渎职罪的种类
第二节 本章重点讲授的罪(重点掌握)
滥用职权罪。玩忽职守罪。故意泄露国家秘密罪。徇私枉法罪。枉法裁判罪。私放在押人员罪。国家机关工作人员签订、履行合同失职罪。过失泄露国家秘密罪。
第三节 本章的其他罪(了解)
失职致使在押人员脱逃罪。徇私舞弊减刑、假释、暂予监外执行罪。徇私舞弊不移交刑事案件罪。滥用管理公司、证券职权罪。徇私舞弊不征、少征税款罪。徇私舞弊发售发票、抵捉税款、出口退税罪。违法提供出口退税凭证罪。违法发放林木采伐许可证罪。环境监管失职罪。传染病防治失职罪。非法批准征用、占用土地罪。非法低价出让国有土地使用权罪。放纵走私罪。商检徇私舞弊罪。商检失职罪。动植物检疫徇私舞弊罪。动植物检疫失职罪。放纵制售伪劣商品犯罪行为罪。办理偷越国(边)境人员出入境证件罪。放行偷越国(边)境人员罪。不解救被拐卖、绑架妇女、儿童罪。阻碍解救被拐卖、绑架妇女、儿童罪。帮助犯罪分子逃避处罚罪。招收公务员、学生徇私舞弊罪。失职造成珍贵文物损毁、流失罪。
第十一章 军人违反职责罪
第一节 军人违反职责罪概述(明确)
一、军人违反职责罪的概念
二、军人违反职责罪的特征
三、军人违反职责罪的种类
第二节 军人违反职责罪的种类(了解)
战时违抗命令罪。战时临阵脱逃罪。逃离部队罪。武器装备肇事罪。盗窃、抢夺武器装备、军用物资罪。非法出卖、转让武器装备罪。隐瞒、谎报军情罪。拒传、假传军令罪。投降罪。擅离、玩忽军事职守罪。阻碍执行军事职务罪。指使部属违反职责罪。违令作战消极罪。拒不救援友邻部队罪。军人叛逃罪。非法获取军事秘密罪。为境外窃取、刺探、收买、非法提供军事秘密罪。故意泄露军事秘密罪。过失泄露军事秘密罪。战时造谣惑众罪。战时自伤罪。擅自改变武器装备编配用途罪。遗弃武器装备罪。遗失武器装备罪。擅自出卖、转让军队房地产罪。虐待部属罪。遗弃伤病军人罪。战时拒不救治伤病军人罪。战时伤害居民、掠夺居民财物罪。私放俘虏罪。虐待俘虏罪。

《商法》


第一周
第一章 公司法
第一节 公司法总论(重点掌握)
第二节 公司的设立(重点掌握)
第二周
第三节 公司的财务与会计制度(次重点)
第四节 公司的变更、合并与分立(次重点)
第五节 公司的董事、监事、高级管理人员(次重点)
第六节 公司债券(次重点)
第七节 公司的解散和清算(次重点)
第八节 外国公司的分支机构(一般掌握)
第三周
第九节 有限责任公司(重点掌握)
第十节 股份有限公司(重点掌握)
第四周
第二章 合伙企业法
第一节 合伙制度概述(一般掌握)
第二节 合伙企业的设立条件与程序(一般掌握)
第三节 合伙企业的财产(重点掌握)
第四节 合伙事务的执行(重点掌握)
第五周
第五节 合伙企业的债务(重点掌握)
第六节 入伙与退伙(重点掌握)
第七节 合伙的解散与清算(一般掌握)
第六周
第三章 个人独资企业法
第一节 个人独资企业概述(一般掌握)
第二节 个人独资企业的设立(一般掌握)
第三节 个人独资企业的投资人及事务管理(一般掌握)
第四节 个人独资企业的解散与清算(一般掌握)
第七、八周
第四章 外商投资企业法
第一节 外伤投资企业法概述(一般掌握)
第二节 中外合资经营企业法(重点掌握)
第三节 中外合作经营企业法(次重点)
第四节 外资企业法(次重点)
第九周
第五章 企业破产法
第一节 破产法总论(一般掌握)
第二节 破产案件的申请和受理(重点掌握)
第三节 债权人会议(重点掌握)
第四节 破产宣告和破产清算(重点掌握)
第五节 和解程序(一般掌握)
第十周
第六章 票据法
第一节 票据法概述(重点掌握)
第二节 票据权利和票据行为(重点掌握)
第三节 票据抗辩与票据补救(重点掌握)
第四节 汇票(重点掌握)
第五节 本票和支票(一般掌握)
第十一、十二周
第七章 保险法
第一节 保险法概述(一般掌握)
第二节 保险合同总论(重点掌握)
第三节 保险合同分论(重点掌握)
第四节 保险业法律制度(次重点)
第十三、十四周
第八章 海商法
第一节 海商法概述(一般掌握)
第二节 船舶与船员(重点掌握)
第三节 海上货物运输合同(重点掌握)
第四节 海上旅客运输合同(重点掌握)
第五节 船舶租用合同(一般掌握)
第六节 船舶碰撞(次重点)
第七节 海难救助(次重点)
第八节 共同海损(次重点)
第九节 海事赔偿责任限制(一般掌握)
第十节 海事诉讼特别程序(一般掌握)

《宪法学》


第一、二周
第一章 宪法概论
第一节 宪法的概念。要求掌握从形式上和实质上认识宪法现象的方法。(重点)
第二节 宪法规范的特点。要求掌握宪法关系的种类和宪法规范的十个特征。(重点)
第三节 宪法的分类。要求掌握传统的宪法分类及其分类标准。(重点)
第四节 宪法的基本原则。要求掌握宪法基本原则的概念及四个宪法一般原则。(重点)
第五节 宪法实施的监督。要求掌握宪法监督的必要性、内容、模式和方式,以及我国宪法监督的主要制度。(重点)
第三周
第二章 宪法的历史
第一节 宪法的产生和发展。重点掌握宪法产生的条件、各主要资本主义国家宪法的产生及宪法发展的一般趋势。(重点)
第二节 旧中国宪法的产生和发展。重点掌握宪法问题在中国的提出、旧中国制宪活动的基 本内容以及革命根据地时期的三个宪法文件。(一般掌握)
第三节 新中国宪法的产生和发展。重点掌握新中国宪政发展的基本脉络及1982年宪法的产生和三次修改的主要内容。(重点)
第四、五周
第三章 国家性质
第一节 国家的本质。掌握我国人民民主专政的国体问题。(重点)
第二节 我国国家制度的特点。掌握我国现阶段社会阶级构成、政党制度和爱国统一战线的内容。(重点)
第三节 经济制度。主要掌握经济制度的一般概念、我国所有权制度、分配制度和财产权制度的内容。(次重点)
第四节 社会主义精神文明。掌握精神文明的涵义和两种精神文明建设的内容。(一般掌握)
第六、七周
第四章 国家形式
第一节 国家政权组织形式。掌握作为我国政体的人民代表大会制度的基本内容。(重点)
第二节 国家结构形式。掌握国家结构形式的概念和种类以及我国采取单一制国家结构形式的原因。(重点)
第三节 国旗、国徽、国歌和首都。掌握国家标志的重要性及它们的使用方式与限制。(次重点)
第八、九、十周
第五章 公民的基本权利和义务
第一节 公民、国籍、人权、基本权利和义务的概念和历史发展。重点掌握基本权利与一般法律权利的区别,我国现行宪法在宪法权利问题上的发展以及我国在人权保护事务上的基本立场和观点。(重点)
第二节 我国公民基本权利的特点。掌握用比较的方法来看我国公民基本权利的发展变化。(次重点)
第三节 我国公民的宪法权利。掌握各种宪法权利的概念和内容,注意对外国人权利和庇护权的宪法规定。(重点)
第四节 我国公民的宪法义务。掌握各种宪法义务的概念和内容。(次重点)
第十一周
第六章 选举制度
第一节 选举、选举制度的概念及历史发展。掌握选举的政治意义、普选制和我国选举制度的历史发展。(一般掌握)
第二节 我国选举制度的基本原则。掌握我国选举制度的各项原则及其现实性特点。(重点)
第三节 我国的选举程序。掌握选举的组织、选区划分、选民登记、代表候选人的提名、投票程序、代表的罢免等程序。(重点)
第十二、十三周
第七章 中央国家机关
第一节 国家机构。重点掌握国家机构的概念和性质、国家机关组织与活动的原则。(次重点)
第二节 全国人民代表大会。掌握全国人大及其常委会的性质、职权和工作程序,掌握全国人大各委员会的性质和职责,掌握人大代表的权利与义务等内容。(重点)
第三节 中华人民共和国主席。掌握国家主席的性质和地位、职权。(重点)
第四节 国务院。掌握国务院的性质、地位、职权、责任、领导体制,以及国务院各机构的地位和责任等内容。(重点)
第五节 中央军事委员会。掌握中央军委的产生与责任问题。(重点)
第六节 最高司法机关。掌握最高人民法院和最高人民检察院的性质、地位组成以及责任等问题。(重点)
第七节 中国人民政治协商会议。掌握人民政协的性质、地位、历史发展及其任务和作用。(重点)

第十四周
第八章 地方国家机关
第一节 地方各级人民代表大会。掌握地方各级人大及其常委会的性质及职责,了解我国规范性法律文件的效力等级。(重点)
第二节 地方各级人民政府。掌握地方各级人民政府的组成、领导体制和职权。(重点)
第三节 民族区域自治制度。掌握民族区域自治制度的概念、特点以及自治地方、自治机关、自治权的相关内容。(重点)
第四节 特别行政区的政权组织。掌握“一国两制”和特别行政区制度的基本理论以及中央与特区关系的主要内容。(重点)
第五节 地方各级人民法院和人民检察院。掌握地方各级司法机关的责任和工作原则。(重点)
第六节 基层群众性自治组织。掌握基层群众自治组织的性质、特点、工作方式和任务。(重点)

《中国法制史》


第一周
导 论
一、什么是中国法制史(次重点)
二、为什么学习中国法制史(一般掌握)
三、怎样学习中国法制史(一般掌握)
第一章 中国法律制度的起源和夏朝的法律制度
第一节 中国法律制度的起源(一般掌握)
第二节 夏朝的法律制度(次重点)
第二章 商和西周的法律制度
第一节 商朝的法律制度(次重点)
第二节 西周的法律制度(重点)
第二周
第三章 春秋战国时期的法律制度
第一节 春秋时期的法律制度
一、春秋时期的经济改革(一般掌握)
二、春秋时期的主要立法(重点)
三、春秋时期公布成文法的论争和意义(重点)
第二节 战国时期的法律制度
一、战国时期的重大改革(一般掌握)
二、战国时期的立法概况(一般掌握)
三、战国时期魏国的主要立法(重点)
四、战国时期秦国的法律制度(重点)
第三周
第四章 秦汉的法律制度
第一节 秦朝的法律制度(次重点)
第二节 汉朝的法律制度
一、汉朝的立法制度(重点)
二、汉朝的刑事法律制度(重点)
三、汉朝的民事法律制度(一般掌握)
四、汉朝的司法、监察制度(次重点)
第四周
第五章 三国两晋南北朝时期的法律制度
第一节 三国两晋南北朝时期的立法概况
一、三国两晋南北朝时期的立法思想(一般掌握)
二、三国两晋南北朝时期的主要立法(次重点)
三、三国两晋南北朝时期法律形式和法典体例的发展变化(重点)
第二节 三国两晋南北朝时期法律的主要内容
一、三国两晋南北朝时期刑事法律的主要内容(重点)
二、三国两晋南北朝时期民事法律的主要内容(次重点)
第三节 三国两晋南北朝时期的司法、监察制度(次重点)
第五周
第六章 隋唐五代的法律制度
第一节 隋朝的法制概况(次重点)
第二节 唐朝的法律制度
一、唐朝的立法制度(重点)
二、唐朝的刑事法律制度(重点)
第六周
三、唐朝的民事法律制度(次重点)
四、唐朝的司法、监察制度(重点)
第三节 五代的法制概况(一般掌握)
第七周
第七章 宋辽金元的法律制度
第一节 宋朝的法律制度
一、宋朝的立法制度(重点)
二、宋朝的刑事法律制度(重点)
三、宋朝的民事法律制度(次重点)
四、宋朝的司法、监察制度(次重点)
第八周
第二节 辽金的法制概况(一般掌握)
第三节 元朝的法律制度(次重点)
第九周
第八章 明清及太平天国的法律制度
第一节 明朝的法律制度
一、明朝的立法制度(重点)
二、明朝的刑事法律制度(重点)
三、明朝的民事法律制度(一般掌握)
四、明朝的司法、监察机关(次重点)
第二节 鸦片战争前清朝的法律制度
一、鸦片战争前清朝的立法制度(次重点)
二、鸦片战争前清朝的刑事法律制度(次重点)
三、鸦片战争前清朝的民事法律制度(次重点)
四、鸦片战争前清朝的司法、监察制度(次重点)
第十周
第三节 鸦片战争后清朝(清末)的法律制度
一、清末的立法制度(次重点)
二、清末的宪法性法律(重点)
三、清末的政权组织法与行政管理法(重点)
四、清末的刑事立法(重点)
五、清末的民事立法(次重点)
六、清末的商事立法(次重点)
七、清末的司法制度(重点)
第十一周
第四节 太平天国的法律制度
一、太平天国的立法制度(次重点)
二、太平天国的基本纲领(重点)
三、太平天国的行政立法(一般掌握)
四、太平天国的刑事立法(重点)
五、太平天国的民事立法(一般掌握)
六、太平天国的经济法律制度(一般掌握)
七、太平天国的司法制度(一般掌握)
第十二周
第九章 中华民国和人民民主政权的法律制度
第一节 中华民国南京临时政府的法律制度
一、南京临时政府的立法制度(次重点)
二、南京临时政府的宪法性法律(重点)
三、南京临时政府的主要法令(次重点)
四、南京临时政府的司法制度(次重点)
第二节 中华民国北京政府(北洋政府)的法律制度
一、北洋政府的立法制度(次重点)
二、北洋政府的宪法性法律和宪法(重点)
三、北洋政府的行政立法(一般掌握)
四、北洋政府的刑事立法(重点)
五、北洋政府的民事立法(一般掌握)
六、北洋政府的商事立法(一般掌握)
七、北洋政府的司法制度(次重点)
第十三周
第三节 中华民国南京国民政府的法律制度
一、南京国民政府的立法制度(次重点)
二、南京国民政府的约法、宪法及其关系法(重点)
三、南京国民政府的行政法(次重点)
四、南京国民政府的刑法和刑事特别法(重点)
五、南京国民政府的民、商事立法(次重点)
六、南京国民政府的司法制度(次重点)
第十四周
第四节 革命根据地人民民主政权的法律制度
一、人民民主政权的立法制度(次重点)
二、人民民主政权的宪法性法律(重点)
三、人民民主政权的主要立法(重点)
四、人民民主政权的司法制度(次重点)

《财政税收法》


第一周
第一章 财政法概论
第一节 财政经济学基础(一般掌握)
第二节 财政法概述(重点掌握)
第三节 财政法的历史发展(一般掌握)
第四节 新世纪的中国财政立法展望(一般掌握)
第二周
第二章 财政管理体制法
第一节 财政管理体制法概述(一般掌握)
第二节 西方主要国家的财政管理体制法(一般掌握)
第三节 我国财政管理体制法的沿革(一般掌握)
第四节 我国分税制财政管理体制法(重点掌握)
第五节 我国分税制财政管理体制法的完善(一般掌握)
第三周
第三章 预算法
第一节 预算法概述(一般掌握)
第二节 预算管理体制(次重点)
第三节 预算管理程序(重点掌握)
第四节 预算决算监督及预算法律责任(一般掌握)
第五节 预算外资金的法律监管(一般掌握)
第六节 中国预算法的发展与完善(次重点)
第四周
第四章 国债法
第一节 国债法概述(一般掌握)
第二节 国家内债法律制度(次重点)
第三节 国家外债法律制度(一般掌握)
第五周
第五章 税法总论
第一节 税收经济学基础(一般掌握)
第二节 税法概述(重点掌握)
第三节 税法的基本原则(重点掌握)
第六周
第五章 税法总论
第四节 税法体系和税收立法体制(重点掌握)
第五节 税收法律关系(重点掌握)
第六节 税法的要素(重点掌握)
第七节 税法的产生和发展(一般掌握)
第七周
第六章 流转税法
第一节 流转税法概述(次重点)
第二节 增值税法(重点掌握)
第三节 消费税法(重点掌握)
第八周
第四节 营业税法(重点掌握)
第五节 城市维护建设税法(一般掌握)
第六节 关税法(一般掌握)
第七节 证券交易税法(一般掌握)
第九周
第七章 所得税法
第一节 所得税法概述(次重点)
第二节 企业所得税法(重点掌握)
第十周
第三节 个人所得税法(重点掌握)
第四节 农业税法(一般掌握)
第五节 社会保障税法(一般掌握)
第十一周
第八章 财产税法
第一节 财产税法概述(次重点)
第二节 房产税法(一般掌握)
第三节 资源税法(一般掌握)
第四节 土地使用税法(一般掌握)
第五节 耕地占用税法(一般掌握)
第十二周
第六节 土地增值税法(一般掌握)
第七节 车辆购置税法(一般掌握)
第八节 车船使用税法(一般掌握)
第九节 遗产税法(重点掌握)
第十节 契税法(一般掌握)
第十三周
第九章 行为税法
第一节 行为税法概述(次重点)
第二节 印花税法(一般掌握)
第三节 筵席税法(一般掌握)
第四节 屠宰税法(一般掌握)
第十章 税收征管法
第一节 税收征管法概述(次重点)
第二节 税务管理制度(一般掌握)
第三节 发票管理制度(一般掌握)
第四节 税款征收制度(重点掌握)
第十四周
第五节 税务检查制度(一般掌握)
第六节 税收法律责任(一般掌握)
第七节 税务代理制度(一般掌握)
第十一章 税收争讼法
第一节 税收争讼法概述(次重点)
第二节 税务行政复议(重点掌握)
第三节 税务行政诉讼(重点掌握)

本学期专业课程作业


《刑法分论》
1.试论述四种法定的转化罪。
2.试论述抢劫罪的法定加重情形。
3.试论述挪用公款罪、挪用资金罪与挪用特定款物罪的区别。
4.试论述敲诈勒索罪、绑架罪与非法拘禁罪的区别。
5.试论述伪证罪,辩护人、诉讼代理人毁灭证据、伪造证据、妨害作证罪,妨害罪证罪,帮助毁灭、伪造证据罪的区别。

《商法》
1.论公司法的性质。
2.论公司债与公司股份的区别。
3.论合伙企业财产的性质。
4.论票据的特征。
5.论保险法的基本原则。

《宪法》
1.宪政与法治的联系与区别?
2.违宪审查与宪法效力的关系?
3.单一制与联邦制的联系与区别?
4.议会至上与三权分立的联系与区别?
5.天赋人权与基本权利的关系?

《中国法制史》
1.试比较分析中国奴隶制五刑与封建制五刑。
2.试述我国封建社会时期中央司法机构的发展变化。
3.试解释何为“同居有罪相为隐”,并阐述其法律渊源和理论基础。
4.试述我国清末预备立宪的背景、宗旨和主要活动。
5.试述《中华民国临时约法》的主要内容,其与《中华民国临时政府组织大纲》有何不同?

《财政税收法》
1.试述现代财政法概念的内涵。
2.请结合财政收支划分法的基本原则,谈谈我国财政收支划分的现状。
3.论我国税法体系的完善。
4.对增值税三种类型进行比较,并说明对我国现行增值税法进行完善的必要性。
5.2001年4月28日九届全国常委会第21次会议对《税收征管法》进行了第二次修订。请指出这次修订的原因、修订的主要方面和修改的意义。

 


《大学英语2》作业

测试题(一)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. The United States is composed of fifty states, two of ____ are separated from the others by land or water.
A. them B. that C. which D. those
2. By the time Juan gets home, his aunt____.
A. will leave B. leaves C. will have left D. is leaving
3. The size of the audience, ____ we had expected was well over one thousand.
A. whom B. who C. as D. that
4. I don’t think you’ve heard of him before, ____?
A. don’t I B. do I C. have you D. haven’t you
5. _____ from space, our earth, with water covering 70% of its surface, appears as a “ blue planet”.
A. Seen B. Seeing C. To be seen D. Having seen
6. He stood waving until the train was out of _____.
A. sight B. glimpse C. scene D. reach
7. Mother warned_____ the electric lamp.
A. not to touch B. him not to touch C. him not touching D. him not touch
8. His parents died when he was young, so he was _____ by his aunt.
A. bred B. fed up C. brought up D. grown up
9. Not until Columbus discovered America _____ to Europe.
A. bananas were brought B. bananas brought
C. are bananas brought D. were bananas brought
10. I would ask George to lend us the money if I ____ him.
A. had known B. have known C. knew D. to have read

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
In China it is relatively usual to ask people their age, but in the west this question is generally regarded as impolite. This is particularly true 1 women, and even more 2 if the inquirer(问者) is a man.
However, it is very 3 to ask children their age, and some adults may not mind being asked 4 . In fact, some elderly people are quite happy to 5 the age, especially if they feel they look young 6 their age. Nevertheless, it is not very wise to ask a 7 question like “How old are you?” If elderly people wan to talk about their age, and perhaps receive a compliment (恭维话) on how young they look, they may easily bring 8 the topic themselves and ask the other to 9 how old they are. 10 such a situation, it is quite acceptable to discuss age 11 . They normally expect to be complimented on their youthfulness, rather than 12 that they look very old.
13 Westerners do not usually ask people directly how old they are, this does not 14 that they are not interested to know how old other people are. They may ask 15 for the information, 16 they may try to 17 the topic indirectly, sometimes discussions about educational 18 and the number of years of working experience may provide some 19 , but this is not always the 20 . Of course, individuals also vary in what they are interested or willing to talk about.
1. A. to B. for C. of D. with
2. A. that B. than C. so D. such
3. A. average B. normal C. expected D. unusual
4. A. too B. also C. neither D. either
5. A. release B. reflect C. reveal D. remark
6. A. to B. with C. for D. at
7. A. open B. strange C. impolite D. direct
8. A. about B. up C. along D. to
9. A. guess B. know C. learn D. predict
10. A. For B. In C. With D. On
11. A. free B. with freedom C. freely D. in a free way
12. A. being told B. told C. to tell D. to be told
13. A. Even B. Though even C. Even though D. Even that
14. A. include B. intend C. mean D. conclude
15. A. no one else B. anyone else C. someone else D. everyone else
16. A. still else B. or else C. so else D. rather else
17. A. approach B. solve C. address D. discuss
18. A. knowledge B. level C. background D. systems
19. A. topics B. clues C. evidences D. suggestions
20. A. case B. truth C. reality D. fact

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Movies are the most popular form of entertainment for millions of Americans. They go to the movies to escape their normal everyday existence and to experience a life more exciting than their own. They may choose to see a particular film because they like the actors or because they have heard the film has a good story. But the main reason why people go to the movies is to escape. Sitting in a dark theater, watching the images on the screen, they enter another world that is real to them. They become involved in the lives of the characters in the movie, and for two hours, they forget all about their own problems. They are in a dream world where things often appear to be more romantic (浪漫的) and beautiful than in real life.
The biggest “dream factories” are in Hollywood, the capital of the film industry. Each year, Hollywood studios make hundreds of movies that are shown all over the world. American movies are popular because they tell stories and they are well made. They provide the public with heroes who do things the average person would like to do but often can’t. People have to cope with many problems and much trouble in real life, so they feel encouraged when they see the “good guys” win the movies.
1. The Americans go to the movies mainly because they want_____.
A. to enjoy a good story B. to experience an exciting life
C. to see the actors and actresses D. to escape their daily life
2. Which of the following is people’s normal response to the movies they watch?
A. They feel that everything on the screen is familiar to them
B. They try to turn their dreams into reality.
C. They become so involved that they forget their own problems
D. They are touched by the life stories of the stories of the actors and actresses
3. It is obvious that real life is_____.
A. less romantic than that in the movies B. more romantic than that in the movies
C. as romantic as that in the movies D. filled with romantic stories
4. The American movies are popular because_____.
A. they are well-made and the stories are interesting
B. the characters in the movies are free to do whatever they like
C. the heroes have to cope with many problems and frustrations
D. good guys in the movies always win in the end
5. People enjoy seeing the movies because they____.
A. are tired of their everyday lives B. feel inspired by the heroic deeds of the good guys
C. want to see who win in the end D. have to cope with many problems in their lives

V.写作(30分)
写一封电子邮件给你的朋友,向他们介绍你和谁一起度过的春节,做了哪些事情,计划在新的一年里在工作、学习和生活上有哪些打算。要求条理清楚、语法正确、语句通顺,字数在100字左右。
测试题(二)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. I _____ the work by the time you come back.
A. will finish B. will have finished
C. have finish D. will have been finishing
2. Not only the students but also the teacher ____ the weekend.
A. like B. likes C. do likes D. don’t like
3. Your watch is similar____ mine.
A. with B. for C. of D. to
4. The car is running ____ than it used to.
A. smoothly B. less smoothly C. the more smoothly D. the most smoothly
5. ____ is important to learn English well today.
A. That B. It C. This D. Its
6. The person _____ is wearing red is my friend.
A. he B. she C. who D. whom
7. He was chosen____.
A. chairman B. a chairman C. the chairman D. chairmans
8. If you study hard you will make great ____.
A. progresses B. progress C. a progress D. a progresses
9. On these____ a group of____ are eating grass.
A. photos, sheeps B. photoes, sheep C. photos, sheep D. photoes, sheeps
10. I decided to call on ____. They helped me a lot.
A. the Browns B. the Brown C. Browns D. Mr. Browns

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Tourism has become a very big 1 . For Spain, Italy and Greece it is the largest 2 of foreign exchange, and 3 for Britain, it is the fourth. Faced 4 this huge new income, no government can afford to look 5 on the business; questions of hotel bath rooms, beach umbrellas and ice-cream sales are now 6 by ministers of tourism with solemn expertise. Before the Second World War the tourist industry was widely 7 as being unmanly and stupid. But 8 has become a new industry, as trade business used 9 in Spain, Italy, Greece and much of Eastern Europe, new road 10 have opened up in the country, first to tourists, and 11 to industry and locals. 12 of tourism is a nationalized industry, a 13 part of national planning. In a place west of Marseilles, the French government is killing mosquitoes and 14 six big vacation places to 15 nearly a million tourists. In Eastern Europe, a whole new seaside 16 has sprung up 17 the last few years: the governments have greatly 18 when tourists from the West 19 from half a million four years 20 to nearly two million last year.
1. A. firm B. business C. company D. affair
2. A. factor B. resource C. source D. cause
3. A. even B. yet C. also D. ever
4. A. in front of B. of C. with D. for
5. A. up B. at C. for D. down
6. A. determined B. discussed C. argued D. sold
7. A. regarded B. said C. talked D. spread
8. A. agriculture B. war C. tourism D. education
9. A. be done B. done C. to do D. to doing
10. A. types B. styles C. buildings D. systems
11. A. than B. later C. then D. latter
12. A. Many B. All C. None D. Much
13. A. key B. minor C. linking D. questioning
14. A. built B. building C. to be built D. have built
15. A. attract B. pull C. hold D. contain
16. A. civilization B. culture C. writing D. book
17. A. over B. for C. after D. beyond
18. A. suffered B. lost C. invested D. benefited
19. A. added B. divided C. reduced D. multiplied
20. A. since B. before C. ago D. after
IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Why don’t birds get lost on their long flights from one place to another? Scientists have puzzled over this question for many years. Now they’re beginning to fill in the blanks.
Not long ago, experiments showed that birds rely on the sun to guide them during daylight hours. But what about birds that fly by night? Tests with artificial(人造的) stars have proved that certain night-flying birds are able to follow the stars in their long-distance flights.
A dove(鸽子) had spent its lifetime in a cage and had never flown under a natural sky. Yet it showed an inborn (天生的)ability to use the stars for guidance, The bird’s cage was placed under an artificial star filled sky. The bird tried to fly in the same direction as that taken by his outdoor cousins. Any change in the position of the artificial stars caused a change in the direction of his flight.
But the stars are apparently their principal means of navigation(远航) only. When the stars are hidden by clouds, they seemingly find their way by such landmarks as mountain ranges, coast lines, and river courses. But when it’s too dark to see these, the doves circle helplessly, unable to find their way.
1. The reason why birds don’t get lost on long flights____.
A. have been known to scientists for years B. have only recently been discovered
C. are known by everyone D. will probably remain a mystery
2. During daylight hours, birds_____.
A. wheel back and forth for nothing B. do not fly long distances
C. use sun for guidance D. are quite likely to get lost
3. By “his outdoor cousins” the author means_____.
A. other experimenters B. the other doves of the same brood(窝)
C. doves under the natural sky D. other birds in general
4. The experiment with the dove indicated that_____.
A. birds have to be taught to navigate B. a bird that has been caged will not fly long distances
C. some birds cannot fly at night D. some birds seem to follow the stars when they fly at night
5. In total darkness, doves_____.
A. use landmarks to find their way B. don’t know which way to fly
C. make their return flight D. wait for the stars to appear

V.写作(30分)
现在城市里的汽车越来越多,私家车的数量急遽增长,写一篇文章表明你对待私家车的态度。要求:1.描述城市里汽车越来越多的现状。2.你认为应该提倡还是限制私家车,阐述理由。

测试题(三)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. No sooner had they got off the rrain ____ it started moving.
A. when B. than C. then D. after
2. This new instrument is far superior ___ the old one we bought three years ago.
A. than B. to C. over D. of
3. It is desirable that he ____.
A. gives up trying B. give up trying
C. would give up trying D. is going to give up trying
4. Young____ he is , he knows what is the right thing to do.
A. that B. as C. although D. however
5. Fortunately, the demonstration ____ to be quite peaceful.
A. turned in B. turned out C. showed off D. showed up
6. When he heard the bad news, she ____ completely.
A. broke away B. broke up C. broke down D. broke out
7. This is a very ____ situation and we don’t know how to face it yet.
A. comprehensive B. compound C. complicated D. competent
8. Words ____ meaning, as we all know.
A. convince B. convey C. contribute D. conquer
9. The fisherman, ____ poor, could not buy another boat.
A. is B. was C. being D. been
10. I don’t know he is a friend of _____.
A. your brother B. your brothers C. your brogher’s friend D. your brogher’s

 

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Can you imagine how you would feel if you fell dangerously ill and could not reach or call a doctor? Millions of people 1 the world are in this unfortunate 2 , living in distant places 3 there are no railways, no proper roads and no telephones. Thousands of 4 are lost every year 5 could have been saved if medical attention 6 in time.
7 today help could be brought quickly and easily 8 many of these people 9 full advantage was taken 10 the aero-plane. 11 country has proved this 12 than Australia. The Australians 13 greater use of the aero-plane than any 14 people in the world. In no other country 15 the total number of miles flown by the 16 person so high. In fact, it has been 17 that Australians jump into planes 18 people in other countries jump into trains and buses. It is not surprising, 19 , that Australia should have been the first country 20 a Flying Doctor Service.
1. A. on B. through C. all over D. within
2. A. society B. world C. way D. position
3. A. where B. because C. although D. which
4. A. people B. children C. families D. lives
5. A. when B. in which C. which D. they
6. A. had been provided B. had been paid more C. was given D. was provided
7. A. Even B. But C. Finally D. So
8. A. from B. with C. in D. to
9. A. but B. if only C. and D. unless
10. A. of B. from C. about D. on
11. A. One B. Any C. Not D. No
12. A. better B. worse C. more D. less
13. A. made B. did C. were making D. make
14. A. of B. else C. other D. Japanese
15. A. of B. in C. are D. is
16. A. living B. average C. brave D. medical
17. A. suggested B. estimated C. worked out D. said
18. A. when B. while C. as D. but
19. A. therefore B. in a way C. perhaps D. accordingly
20. A. of B. to develop C. made up D. into

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent,” the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the United States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations. At first, the music had no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient.
Within a very short time, however, the incongruity(不协调) of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.
As movie theaters grew in number and importance, a violinist, and perhaps a cellist(大提琴演奏家), would be added to the pianist in certain cases, and in the larger movie theaters small orchestras(乐队) were formed. For a number of years the selection of music rested entirely in the hands of the conductor or leader of the orchestra. Since the conductor seldom saw the films until the night before they were to be shown (if, indeed, the conductor was lucky enough to see them then), the musical arrangement was normally improvised in the greatest hurry.
To help meet this difficulty, film-distributing companies started the practice of publishing suggestions for musical accompaniments. In 1909, for example, the Edison Company began issuing with their films such indications of mood as “pleasant,” “sad,” “lively.” The suggestions became more explicit, and so emerged the musical cue(提示) sheet containing indications of mood, the titles of suitable pieces of music, and precise directions to show where one piece led into the next.
Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores(乐章) was that composed and arranged for D. W. Griffith’s film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915.
1. The passage is mainly about _______.
A.music specially composed for certain films B.music that was played during silent films
C.how music came into silent film D.why there was music for silent film
2. What can be inferred from the passage about the majority of films made after 1927?
A. They were truly “silent.”
B. They were no music along with them.
C. They incorporated the sound of the actors’ voices.
D. They met the needs of the audience who liked different music for films.
3. It can be inferred that orchestra conductors who worked in movie theaters needed to ____.
A. be able to play many instruments B. have a talent for playing piano.
C. be familiar with a wide variety of music D. be able to compose original music on the spot
4. Who had to choose the music for a particular movie before the film-distributing companies started publishing suggestions for musical accompaniments?
A.the conductor or the leader of the orchestra. B.the conductor or the leader of the orchestra and the audience
C.the director D.the film-distributing companies
5. It may be inferred from the passage that the first musical cue sheets appeared around ______
A.1896 B.1909 C. 1915 D. 1927

V.写作(30分)
描述目前社会上学习英语的热潮,阐述自己对这种热潮的看法;简介自己对英语学习的态度,以及自己英语学习的状况,并阐述自己学习英语的原因;语句通顺,语法正确,字数在100字左右。

测试题(四)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. You should be able to _____ right from wrong.
A. perceive B. distinguish C. sight D. observe
2. All my neighbors tried to help in some way. But they turned out to be actually____ the way.
A. in B. on C. with D. beyond
3. They are _____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations.
A. so diligent B. such diligent C. so much diligent D. such very diligent
4. But for the rain, we ____ a nice holiday.
A. should have B. would have had C. would have D. will have had
5. We have decided to call _____ Mr. Black sometime next week at his home.
A. on B. at C. up D. for
6. She was ____ the top prize in the competition.
A. awarded B. rewarded C. received D. accepted
7. The old man is used to _____ early in the morning.
A. exercise B. exercising C. exercised D. exercises
8. It is because she is very devoted to her students _____ she is respected by them.
A. that B. which C. what D. who
9. We use plastics _____ wood and metal now.
A. to take place B. to take of C. take the place of D. in place of
10. This is one of the best books _____on the subject.
A. that have ever been written B. which have ever been written
C. that has ever been written D. whatever have been written
II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Smoking is considered dangerous to the health. Our tobacco-seller, Mr. Johnson, therefore, always asked his customers, if they are very young, whom the cigarettes are bought 1 .
One day, a little girl whom he had never seen before walked 2 into his shop and demanded twenty cigarettes. She had the 3 amount of money in her hand and seemed very 4 of herself. Mr. Johnson was so 5 by her confident manner that he 6 to ask this usual question. 7 , he asked her what kind of cigarettes she wanted. The girl replied 8 and handed him the money. While he was giving her the 9 , Mr. Johnson said laughingly that 10 she was so young she should 11 the packet in her pocket in 12 a policeman saw it. 13 , the little girl did not seem to find this very funny. Without 14 smiling she took the 15 and walked towards the door. Suddenly she stopped, turned 16 , and looked steadily at Mr. Johnson. 17 was a moment of silence and the tobacco-seller 18 what she was going to say. All at once, in a clear, 19 voice, the girl declared, “ 20 dad is a policeman,” and with that she walked quickly out of the shop.
1. A. with B. to C. for D. by
2. A. nervously B. heavily C. hesitatingly D. boldly
3. A. exact B. some C. large D. enough
4. A. ashamed B. sure C. fond D. glad
5. A. worried B. annoyed C. surprised D. pleased
6. A. forgot B. came C. feared D. remembered
7. A.. Therefore B. Instead C. Anyway D. Somehow
8. A. readily B. patiently C. angrily D. rudely
9. A. change B. warning C. cheque D. cigarettes
10. A. as B. for C. while D. though
11. A. cover B. hide C. dip D. take
12. A. time B. case C. fear D. consequence
13. A. Nevertheless B. Moreover C. Therefore D. Then
14. A. ever B. little C. some D. even
15. A. packet B. money C. advice D. bill
16. A. away B. over C. round D. aside
17. A. It B. There C. She D. Here
18. A. wondered B. considered C. doubted D. expected
19. A. weak B. firm C. joking D. humble
20. A. The B. For C. My D. As

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
All of us rely on what we see. We say to ourselves, "I know, I was there; I saw it happen" and that seems to settle the matter. Or does it? Can we really trust the evidence of our eyes?
Take competitive sports. Fans who see the same game will not agree with each other and will disagree with the referee(裁判). "He was out of bounds when he caught the pass," says one fan. Says another, "You're crazy. I saw it with my own eyes. He was five feet in bounds. You must be blind." The referee rules that the receiver did step out of bounds. But thousands of fans are still not convinced - because they were there!
It's the same story in the courtroom. Trial procedure depends on witnesses giving sworn testimony(证词). But just how reliable is the testimony of a person who reports what he has seen? In a recent study, ten thousand witnesses were asked to describe the man they saw commit a crime. The study reveals that, on the average, the witnesses overestimated the man's height by five inches, his age by eight years, and gave the wrong hair color in 83 percent of the cases. These witnesses didn't play tricks on them!
What can we do to keep error to minimum? First of all, don't let your emotions interfere with your vision. Don't see something because you want to see it. Secondly, try to stay relaxed. If you are tense, you are liable to see red when the color is blue. And finally, it helps to make notes of what you see. Don't rely on your memory alone. Take pictures, make recordings, and use any other aid to reduce distortion.
1. The best statement of the main idea of this passage is that _________.
A. all of us rely on what we see
B. sworn witnesses and sports fans rarely give accurate descriptions of what they see
C. we can't completely trust the evidence of our eyes
D. eyewitnesses are unreliable
2. The passage suggests that fans at sports events _________.
A. are swayed(支配) by emotion B. don't trust the referee
C. lie about what they see D. have no respect for the truth
3. Statistical studies show that _________.
A. courtroom testimony only confuses the jury
B. in 83 percent of the cases, witnesses overestimate age by eight years
C. witnesses are remarkably accurate
D. testimony of people reporting what they see is often unreliable
4. The word "them" in the last line of paragraph 3 refers to _________.
A. the eyes of the witnesses B. the sworn testimony given by the witnesses
C. the members of the jury D. the height, age and hair color of the criminal
5. To keep visual error to a minimum, all of the following are necessary EXCEPT _________.
A. to stay calm B. to get close for a better look
C. not to let your emotions interfere D. to make notes of what you see

V.写作(30分)
写一封信告诉你的高中同学,包括以下内容:1、你们高中的同班同学要举行一次聚会,邀请所有的同班同学参加 2、介绍聚会的时间、地点、以及安排的活动内容 3、希望每个同学准备一个小节目,并且希望你的同学对聚会提一些意见或建议。条理清楚,语句通顺,字数在100字左右。

测试题(五)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. The computer doesn’t work well, so something _____ wrong.
A. can have gone B. should have gone C. must have gone D. ought to have gone
2. Most insurance agents would rather you _____ anything about collecting claims until they investigate the situation.
A. don’t do B. didn’t do C. would not do D. do
3. She must be looking forward to your return, _____?
A. mustn’t she B. wasn’t she C. isn’t she D. didn’t she
4. Mr. Smith will move into his new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished.
A. by that time B. by which time C. by then D. by the time
5. The size of that island is about ____ that of this one.
A. three times as much as B. as three times much as
C. as three times greater as D. three times as big as
6. Although Jack made a foolish mistake, we _____ at him.
A. ought to have laughed B. oughtn’t to have laughed
C. ought to laugh D. should not to laugh
7. Police are _____ the disappearance of two children.
A. looking out B. looking after C. looking into D. looking on
8. Many Americans worry about leisure and hurry from one activity to the next, little time to stop and think.
A. leave B. leaving C. left D. to leave
9. For a successful business, friendly and ____staff are essential.
A. sufficient B. effective C. efficient D. respective
10. Hardly ever _____ get a good job these days without a good education.
A. people might B. people can C. do people D. have people

 

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Building a house costs quite a lot of money. 1 you plan to build a house. Your first 2 will be to find a right piece of land. Your choice will depend on many different things. You will probably try to 3 a sunny place, with 4 surroundings near shops and bus stops, not too far from your friends and the place where you work.
Next you will find an excellent 5 , and together with the builder you will work out a 6 . The builder will draw the plan. It will 7 the number of rooms, their position and size, and other parts which must be noticed, 8 windows, doors and electric outlets. The builder will work out 9 is needed to 10 your house. He will 11 the cost of the wood, bricks, the glass, and 12 else that must be used in building the house. Later on, when he starts to build, this estimate(预算)must be corrected and revised. His estimate is based on existing 13 , but prices of such things may 14 , and many other things may happen 15 the time when he makes the estimate and the time when he builds the house.
When the builder gives his estimate, you may wish to 16 your plan. (You may also wish to change your builder, if his estimate is too 17 !) You may find that some of the features you wanted at first 18 too much, or that you can spend a little more and 19 something to your plan. The builder's estimate depends on the plan, 20 the final plan depends on the builder's estimate.
1. A. Think B. Expect C. Suppose D. Decide
2. A. step B. method C. way D. class
3. A. find B. look C. discover D. uncover
4. A. happy B. pleasant C. lonely D. pleased
5. A. builder B. worker C. secretary D. father
6. A. cost B. plan C. map D. problem
7. A. show B. draw C. see D. appear
8. A. such as B. for example C. that D. which
9. A. how many builders B. how much money C. the days D. the bricks
10. A. give B. sell C. build D. buy
11. A. work out B. depend on C. take away D. put up
12. A. something B. nothing C. everything D. other thing
13. A. things B. plan C. goods D. price
14. A. rise B. reduce C. increase D. change
15. A. in B. between C. among D. by
16. A. give up B. turn off C. change D. put off
17. A. low B. high C. fine D. cheap
18. A. cost B. pay C. spend D. takes
19. A. reduce B. place C. add D. lay
20. A. and B. so C. but D. then

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Some people argue that the pressure on international sportsmen and sportswomen kills the essence of sport ---- the pursuit of personal excellence. Children kick a football around for fun. When they get older and play for local school team, they become competitive but they still enjoy playing. The individual representing his country cannot afford to think about enjoying himself, he has to think only about winning. He is responsible for an entire nation’s hopes, dreams and reputation.
A good example is the football World Cup. Football is the world’s most important sport. Winning the World Cup is perhaps the summit of international sporting success. Mention “ Argentina” to someone and the chances are that he’ll think of football. In a sense, winning the World Cup “ put Argentina on the map”.
Sports fans and supporters get quite irrational about the World Cup. People in England felt that their country was somehow important after they won in 1966. Last year thousands of Scots sold their cars, and even their houses, and spent all their money traveling to Argentina, where the finals were played.
So, am I arguing that international competition kills the idea of sport? Certainly not! Do the Argentinean really believe that because eleven of their men proved the most skillful at football, their nation is in every way better than all others? Not really. But it’s nice to know that you won and that in one way at least your country is the best.
1. What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?
A. To prove that football is the world’s most important sport B. To show that Argentina is better than all others
C. To compare Scotland with Argentina D. To explain the role of sport
2. In the second paragraph, the word “ summit” means____.
A. highest point B. mountain top C. award D. summary
3. According to the passage, Argentina is world famous because of its____.
A. large number of sports fans and supporters B. successes in the football World Cup
C. obvious position on the map D. excellence at most important sports
4. According to the passage, if a sportsman only thinks about winning, he will ____.
A. fail to succeed B. be successful C. lose enjoyment D. be irrational
5. What is the author’s attitude towards international games?
A. Nations that meet on a football field are unlikely to meet on a battlefield.
B. Nations that win the football World Cup are regarded as best in all aspects.
C. Nations that win in international games prove the best on the sports field at least
D. Nations that give much attention to international competitions are world famous in many ways
V.写作(30分)
学校正在为2008年奥运会招募志愿者,写一封信去报名,要求:1、写明如何得知这一消息,并表达自己的愿望。2、你为什么要做志愿者,以及你有哪些优势。3、你成为一名志愿者后将会做到哪些承诺。条理清楚,语句通顺,字数在100字左右。

测试题(六)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. I know it isn’t important but I can’t help _____ about it.
A. but to think B. thinking C. think D. to think
2. They sat together, _____ carefully the design of the building.
A. studying B. studied C. and studying D. to study
3. When _____ why he walked in without permission, he just stared at us and said nothing.
A. asking B. asked C. being asked D. to be asked
4. I am looking forward _____ you.
A. to see B. for seeing C. to seeing D. seeing
5. This recorder needs _____.
A. repaired B. being repaired C. repairing D. to repair
6. It was not ____1980 that he came back to China.
A. since B. until C. before D. after
7. The girl in the picture was smiling sweetly, _____.
A. her long hair flowed in the breeze B. her long hair was flowing in the breeze
C. her long hair was flow in the breeze D. her long hair flowing in the breeze
8. As fuel prices rose, bus companies raised their fares and _____.
A. so did the airlines B. nor did the airlines
C. so the airlines did D. nor the airlines did
9. What we got to _____ is a disgrace.
A. come up with B. catch up with C. put up with D. keep up with
10. He studied hard in his youth, _____ contributed to his great success in later life.
A. that B. it C. what D. which

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Is there something that live in the world’s highest mountains? If so, is it a big bear? Is it a 1 ? Or is it a kind of man? No one knows. This mystery has 2 the world for 3 .
In 1887, a 4 climber found giant footprints in the 5 . They looked like the foot-prints of a very large 6 . But men don’t walk barefoot in the snow! In 1906, another 7 saw more than footprints. Far off, he saw a great hairy 8 standing on two legs. As he watched, it ran out of sight. Fifteen years later, newspapers had new 9 about the “something”. A mountain climber said he had 10 the “snow man” walk slowly across the snow, far below him. He said it looked like a very large hairy man. From then on, more and more people had stories to 11 . But not 12 1951 did a mountain climber bring back 13 of giant footprints. The pictures showed 14 that the Snowman walked on two 15 . So it was not a bear or a monkey. 16 it be an ape man ? The mystery 17 ! And the mystery keeps on growing. Brave men still 18 the Snowman in the high mountains. Someday we may find out just what it is 19 makes the giant 20 .
1. A. beast B. fun C. snow man D. monkey
2. A. astonished B. surprised C. puzzled D. excited
3. A. months B. days C. weeks D. years
4. A. mountainous B. mountain C. great D. rock
5. A. snow B. mountain C. earth D. soil
6. A. animal B. bear C. creature D. man
7. A. man B. climber C. reporter D. sportsman
8. A. animal B. being C. human D. life
9. A. news B. reports C. stories D. headlines
10. A. watched B. seen C. observed D. looked
11. A. write B. report C. say D. tell
12. A. by B. in C. until D. till
13. A. drawings B. paintings C. pictures D. examples
14. A. clearly B. exactly C. surprisingly D. chiefly
15. A. feet B. legs C. hands D. arms
16. A. May B. Would C. Must D. Could
17. A. grew B. went C. appeared D. came
18. A. find B. watch C. hunt D. search
19. A. which B. that C. this D. who
20. A. animals B. men C. pictures D. footprints

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
No country in the world has more daily newspapers than the USA. There are almost 2000 of them, as compared with 180 in Japan, 164 in Argentina and 111 in Britain. The quality of some American papers is extremely high and their views are quoted all over the world. Distinguished dailies like the Washington Post or the New York Times have a powerful influence all over the country. However the Post and the Times are not national newspapers in the sense that The Times in Britain or Le Monde is in France ,, since each American city has its own daily newspaper. The best of these present detailed accounts of national and international news, but many tend to limit themselves to state or cite news.
Like the press in most other countries, American newspapers range from the “sensational”, which feature crime, sex and rumour, to the serious , which focus on factual news and the analysis of world events. But with few exceptions American newspapers try to entertain as well as give information, for they have to compete with television.
Just as American newspapers give way to all tastes, so do they also try and apply to readers for all political persuasions. A few newspapers support extremist groups on the far right and on the far left, but most daily newspapers attempt to attract middle-of –the –road Americans who are essentially moderate. Many of these papers print columns by well-known journalists of different political and social views, in order to present a balanced picture.
As in other democratic countries American newspapers can be either responsible or irresponsible, but it is generally accepted that the American press serves its country well and that it has more than once bravely uncovered political scandals or crime, for instance, the Watergate Affair. The newspapers drew the attention of the public to the fears of the Vietnam War.
1. There are fewer national newspapers in _____.
A. Britain than in the USA B. France than in Britain
C. the USA than in Britain or France D. France than in the USA or Britain
2. Most American newspapers try to entertain their readers because_____.
A. they have keep up a good relation with them B. they have to compete with television
C. they have to write about crime, sex and rumour D. they have to give factual news in an interesting way
3. Many American newspapers attract readers of different political tendency by____.
A. supporting extremist groups from time to time
B. inviting middle-of –the –road Americans to write articles for them
C. avoiding carrying articles about extremists
D. printing article representing different political viewpoints
4. In this passage, the word “press”(Para.2) means_____.
A. a machine for printing B. the business of printing
C. great force D. newspapers
5. The passage is mainly about_____.
A. the characteristics of American newspapers B. the development of American newspapers
C. the functions of American newspapers D. the merits and shortcomings of American newspapers

V.写作(30分)
网络在人们的生活中变得越来越重要,但是网络既有好的一面,也有不好的一面。谈谈你对网络的看法,阐述它有益及有害的方面,并表明你自己对网络的态度。语句通顺,条理清楚,观点明确,字数在100字左右。 (请将答案做在本期第54页“《大学英语 》作业”答题纸上)

 

《大学英语3》作业

测试题(一)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. Would you like to go fishing with us now?
________________________.
A. No, I don't like B. It sounds interesting but I have lots of homework to do
C. I won't tell you D. Oh, it is well
2. How is everything with you?
. _______________.
A. Don't mention it B. As usual. C. Thank you. D. You are welcome.
3. Sorry, officer. I ____ at 80 miles but I didn't see any sign in the area telling people how fast they can drive.
A. should not drive B. shouldn't have driven C. mustn't drive D. can't drive
4. Why not _________ Professor Li for help? He is kind-hearted and willing to help.
A. ask B. you ask C. to ask D your asking
5. It is not easy _________ the answer to the difficult math problem.
A. to figure out B. figuring out C. figure out D. being figured out
6. The tsunami (海啸)__________over 160, 000 people were killed was a terrible disaster for human beings.
A. of that B. among which C. during that D. in which
7. Take the medicine now. I believe it will _________ your pain.
A. release B. relive C. reject D. relieve
8. Helen was much kinder to her youngest child than she was to the others, __________, of course, made the others jealous.
A. who B. what C. that D. which
9. Evidence came up __________ specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.
A. where B. that C. which D. what
10. He __________ when the bus came to a sudden stop.
A. was almost hurt B. was almost to hurt himself
C. was almost hurt himself D. was almost hurting himself

 

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Todd was working at his gas station(加油站)at night when he heard over the radio that a bank in Long Island had been 1 by an armed man who had killed the night guard and got away with $ 150,000. “One hundred and fifty thousand,” Todd whistled. Here's a fellow who just 2 into a bank and helps himself 3 so much money. Todd thought of the 4 with which he managed to get the amount of money he 5 to start his gas station, So many papers to 6 , so much money to pay back. The news 7 twenty minutes later. The gunman had stopped a car for a ride, and then 8 out the driver. He was possibly heading for the Southern State Parkway in a white Ford. License plate(车牌)number LJR1939. The 9 of the announcer continued: “ 10 out for white cars. Don't pick up 11 , and all you folks in gas stations better not do 12 to a white Ford car.” Todd stood up and 13 to see out into the cold night. It was dark but Todd 14 the Southern State Parkway was out there. Just 15 , Todd saw the headlights coming at him and a car pulled in for 16 . There it was, a white Ford. He saw the 17 , LJR1939. “What should I do?” Todd had to make a quick 18 . “Yes, sir?” Todd asked while making up his mind for sure. “ 19 her up,” the man said sounding like any other 20 . When the tank (油箱)was full, Todd quickly turned round and pointed a gun at the man. “Hands up and get out!”
1. A. searched for B. held up C. taken over D. broken into
2. A. walks B. looks C. marches D. drives
3. A. for B. by C. to D. of
4. A. satisfaction B. difficulty C. disappointment D. spirit
5. A. saved B. made C. offered D. needed
6. A. collect B. prove C. sign D. write
7. A. continued B. lasted C. spread D. arrived
8. A. sent B. found C. left D. pushed
9. A. news B. warning C. advice D. voice
10. A. Look B. Run C. Call D. Set
11. A. guests B. strangers C. prisoners D. passengers
12. A. harm B. favor C. service D. business
13. A. tried B. decided C. hoped D. happened
14. A. considered B. knew C. recognized D. learnt
15. A. then B. there C. right D. now
16. A. directions B. repairs C. gas D. parking
17. A. mark B. number C. sign D. name
18. A. decision B. call C. movement D. remark
19. A. Cover B. Fill C. Check D. Tie
20. A. visitor B. robber C. driver D. rider

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
When we talk about intelligence, we do not mean the ability to get good scores on certain kinds of tests or even the ability to do well in school. By intelligence we mean a way of living and behaving, especially in a new or upsetting situation. If we want to test intelligence, we need to find out how a person acts instead of how much he knows what to do. For instance, when in a new situation, an intelligent person thinks about the situation, not about himself or what might happen to him. He tries to find out all he can, and then he acts immediately and tries to do something about it. He probably isn't sure how it will all work out, but at least he tries. And, if he can't make things work out right, he doesn't feel ashamed that he failed; he just tries to learn from his mistakes. An intelligent person, even if he is very young, has a special outlook on life, a special feeling about life, and knows how he fits into it.If you look at children, you'll see great difference between what we call "bright" children and "not-bright" children. They are actually two different kinds of people, not just the same kind with different amount of intelligence. For example, the bright child really wants to find out about life - he tries to get in touch with everything around him. But, the unintelligent child keeps more to himself and his own dream-world; he seems to have a wall between him and life in general.
1. According to this passage, intelligence is __________.
A. the ability to study well B. the ability to do well in school
C. the ability to deal with life D. the ability to get high scores on some tests
2. In a new situation, an intelligent person__________.
A. knows more about what might happen to him B. is sure of the result he will get
C. concentrates on what to do about the situation D. cares more about himself
3. If an intelligent person failed, he would__________.
A. try not to feel ashamed B. learn from his experiences
C. try to regret as much as possible D. make sure what result he would get
4. Bright children and not-bright children__________.
A. are two different types of children B. are different mainly in their degree of cleverness
C. have difference only in their way of thinking D. have different knowledge about the world
5. The author of this passage will probably continue to talk about __________.
A. how to determine what intelligence is B. how education should be found
C. how to solve practical problems D. how an unintelligent person should be taught

V.写作(30分)
说明:请你用30分钟的时间给你以前的同学写一封信,字数必须在80个字以上,并且所写的内容必须包含以下三项:
1.告诉对方自己将参加英语三级考试。
2.询问对方应该怎样做充分的准备。
3.请对方推荐些参考书试卷等。

测试题(二)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. How are you getting along?
____________________.
A. Thank you    B. Don't mention it C. Just fine, thank you. D. You are welcome.
2. How are you? _________.
A. Not very well, I've got a cold. B. Same to you. C. Thank you. D. You, too.
3. English is used by more people than is__________language except Chinese.
A. any B. any Other C. other D. all other
4. The dish________terrible! I don't like it at all.
A. tastes B. tasted C. will taste D. is tasted
5. She________ be ill because I saw her playing tennis just now.
A. can't B. couldn't C. mustn't D. may not
6. History is a record of mankind; different historians, __________, interpret it differently.
A. therefore B. on the contrary C. however D. consequently
7. It was not until it got dark __________ working.
A. that they stopped B. when they stopped C. did they stop D. that they didn't stop
8. Before the child went to bed, the father asked him to __________ all the toys he had taken out.
A. put off B. put up C. put away D. put out
9. Thinking that you know __________ in fact you don't is not a good idea.
A. what B. that C. when D. which
10."__________ does Mr. Johnson go to London on business?” “At least once a month.”
A. How many B. How long C. How often D. How

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
About a month ago I was present at a serious occasion I the reading of a will. I can remember one passage that particularly struck me. It ran something 1 this. "And I direct that $t0,000 be 2 . to old William B, whom I have wished to help for many years, 3 always put off doing so." It 4 the last words of a dying man. But the story does not 5 there. When the lawyers came to 6 out the bequest (遗赠), they discovered that old William B had 7 , too, and so the 8 deed was lost. I felt rather 9 about that. It seemed to me a most regrettable 10 that William should not have had his $10,000 just 11 somebody kept putting 12 giving it to him. And from 13 accounts, William could have done with the 14 . But I am sure 15 there are thousands of kindly little deeds waiting to be 16 today, which are being put off" 17 later." George Herbert, in praise of good intentions, 18 that "One of these days is better than 19 of these days." But I say that 20 is better than all.
1. A. about B. for C. like D. of
2. A. consumed B. paid C. cost D. devoted
3. A. but B. or C. still D. and
4. A. has been B. were C. is D. was
5. A. remain B. end C. finish D. appear
6. A. find B. point C. put D. carry
7. A. died B. disappeared C. escaped D. hidden
8. A. invaluable B. identical C. good D. historic
9. A. exciting B. sorry C. faithful D. happy
10. A. matters B. dream C. task D. thing
11. A. because B. for C. as though D. till
12. A. off B. into C. in D. on
13. A. every B. some C. any D. all
14. A. payment B. money C. regrets D. expense
15.A. whether B. of C. that D. often
16. A. protected B. done C. made D. rewarded
17. A. until B. still C. too D. toward
18. A. implies B. marked C. regrets D. says
19. A. some B. any C. all D. none
20. A. Morning B. Spring C. Today D. Time

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Languages are remarkably complex and wonderfully complicated organs of culture. (76)(They contain the quickest and the most efficient means of communicating within their respective culture. )To learn a foreign language is to learn another culture. In the words of a poet and philosopher, “As many languages as one speaks, so many lives one lives.”A culture and its language are as necessary as brain and body; while one is a part of the other, neither can function without the other. In learning a foreign language, the best beginning would be starting with the non-language elements of the language: its gestures, its body language, etc. Eye contact is extremely important in English. Direct eye contact leads to understanding, or, as the English saying goes, seeing eye-to-eye. We can never see eye-to-eye with a native speaker of English until we have learned to look directly into his eyes.
1. The best title for this passage is
A. Organs of Culture B. Brain and Body C. Looking into his eyes D. Language and Culture 2. According to this passage, the best way to learn a foreign language is__________
A. to read the works of poets and philcsophers B. to find a native speaker and look directly into his eyes
C. to begin by learning its body language D. to visit a country where you can study
3. According to this passage, gestures are__________
A. spoken words B. a non-language element C. pictures in a language D. written language
4. "As many languages as one speaks, so many lives..." means__________
A. if one learns many foreign languages, one will have a better understanding of his own language
B. life is richer and more interesting if one knows several languages
C. no matter how many languages one knows, one can never know more than one's own culture
D. if a person speaks only one language, he will live a very happy life.
5. Which of the following doesn't share the same meaning with the others?
A. signs B. gestures C. efficient D. body language

V.写作(30分)
说明:请你用30分钟的时间给你以前的同学写一封信,字数必须在80个字以上,并且所写的内容必须包含以下三项:
1.春节后已经开学/工作一段时间了。
2.介绍自己现在的工作/学习情况。
3.询问家人情况如何。

测试题(三)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. Can you go out with us for dinner this evening?
_________________________.
A. No, I already have plans B. Thanks a lot, but I'm busy tonight
C. No, I really don't like being with you  D. I'm ill, so I shouldn't go out for dinner
2. Hi, may I introduce you to Mr. Li?
________________________.
A. Nice to meet you B. No, you can’t C. Speaking,please D. You are welcome
3. How can you__________her offer? I'm afraid she will feel hurt.
A. turn out B. turn up C. turn down D. turn away
4. She apologized for__________to attend the meeting.
A. her being not able B. her to be not able C. her not to be able D. her not being able to
5. This new coat cost me__________the last one I bought two years ago.
A. three times B. three times as much as C. three times as much D. three times much as
6. Each term our professors would__________a list of books for us to read.
A. hand in B. give away C. pass out D. write out
7. I__________my wallet when I was shopping in the store.
A. must have dropped B. should have dropped C. could drop D. ought to have dropped
8. When I say that someone is in Shanghai for good, I mean that he is there__________.
A. to find a good job B. for tile time being C. to live a happy life D. for ever
9. Rubber differs from plastics __________ it is produced naturally and not in file lab.
A. at that B. in that C. for that D. with that
10. Women all over the world are__________ equal pay for equal jobs.
A. calling on B. calling about C. calling off D. calling for

 

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words, which makes up the whole vocabulary. First, there are those words 1 which we become familiar in daily conversation, which we 2 , that is to say, from the 3 of our own family and from our friends, and 4 we should know and use 5 we could not read or write. They 6 the common things of life with all the people who 7 the language. Such words may be called "popular", since they belong to the people 8 and are not excluded 9 a limited class.
On the other hand, our language 10 a large number of words which are comparatively 11 used in ordinary conversation. Their meanings are known to every educated person , but there is little 12 to use them at home or in the market-place. Our 13 acquaintance with them comes not from our mother's 14 or from the talk of our schoolmates, 15 from books that we read, lectures that we 16 , or the more 17 conversation of highly educated speakers who are discussing some particular 18 in a style properly higher above the habitual 19 of everyday life. Such words are called "learned", and the 20 between them and the "popular" words is of great importance to a right understanding of language study process.
1. A. at B. with C. by D. through
2. A. study B. imitate C. stimulate D. learn
3. A. mates B. relatives C. members D. fellows
4. A. which B. that C. those D. ones
5. A. even B. despite C. even if D. in spite of
6. A. mind B. concern C. care D. relate
7. A. hire B. apply C. adopt D. use
8. A. in public B. at most C. at large D. at best
9. A. in B. from C. with D. on
10. A. consists B. consists of C. makes D. composes
11. A. seldom B. much C. greatly D. often
12. A. possibility B. way C. reason D. necessity
13. A. primary B. first C. principal D. prior
14. A. tips B. mouth C. ears D. tongue
15. A. besides B. and C. yet D. but
16. A. hear of B. attend C. hear from D. listen
17. A. former B. formula C. formal D. forward
18. A. theme B. topic C. idea D. point
19. A. border B. link C. degree D. extent
20. A. relation B. distinction C. connection D. similarity
IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Trees are useful to man in three very important ways: they provide him with wood and other products; they give him shade; and they help to prevent droughts (干旱) and floods.
Unfortunately, man has not realized that the third of these services is the most important. Two thousand years ago a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build warships, with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire, but, without its trees, its soil became hard and poor. When the empire fell to pieces, the home country found itself faced by flood and starvation.
Even though a government realizes the importance of a plentiful supply of trees, it is difficult for it to persuade villagers to see this. The villagers want wood to cook their food with; and they can earn money by selling wood. They are usually too lazy to plant and look after the trees. So, unless the govemment has a good system of control, or can educate the people, the forests will slowly disappear.
This does not only mean that the villagers' children and grandchildren will have fewer trees. The results are even more serious, for where there are trees their roots break the soil up allowing the rain to sink in - and also bind the soil, thus preventing its being washed away easily but where there are no trees, the rain falls on hard ground and flows away from the surface, causing flood.
1. What is the most important function of trees?
A. Providing fuel. B. Offering shade. C. Preventing natural disaster. D. Providing wood. 2. What eventually happened to the empire in the paragraph?
A. Its people died of hunger. B. It fell to pieces.
C. It became a giant empire. D. It built many ships with wood.
3. It is implied in the passage that the villagers__________
A. want a plentiful supply of trees. B. want firewood badly.
C. just want to get money. D. don't realize the importance of trees.
4. The role of trees is to__________
A. loosen soil B. keep soil in position C. harden soil D. both A and B 5. What is the passage mainly concerned with?
A. The benefits of trees. B. Trees and soil protection
C. The various uses of trees. D. Different attitudes toward trees.

V.写作(30分)
说明:请你用30分钟的时间给你以前的同学写一封信,字数必须在80个字以上,并且所写的内容必须包含以下三项:
1.询问与自己同专业的同学专业学习情况。
2.介绍自己此专业的学习情况及心得。
3.希望与对方共享彼此学习经验信息。

测试题(四)

I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. This is Mr. Li.
_____________.
A. How do you do? B. Oh, I know. C. What are you? D. How old are you?
2. Let me introduce Mr. Li, our new president. _____________________________.
A. Just fine. B. You are welcome. C. Oh, please. D. Pleased to meet you. 3. I believe you have__________your purse in the living-room.
A. left alone B. left behind C. left off D. left out
4. The results of the survey are interesting and they__________more questions than they can answer.
A. bring about B. prohibit C. project D. benefit from
5. He abandoned a career that __________ to his becoming one of the most influential people in the world.
A. could have led B. would lead C. should have led D. must lead
6. The doctor's advice was that the patient __________ at once.
A. to be operated B. being operated C. be operated D. operated
7. __________by the look on her face, she didn't catch what I meant.
A. Judging B. Judged C. Judge D. To judge
8. The children lined up and walked out __________.
A. in place B. in condition C. in order D. in private
9. The teacher, as well as all his students, __________ by the dancer's performance.
A. was impressed B. had impressed C. impressed D. were impressed
10. __________ is well known, the key to success lies in hard work.
A. As B. That C. Which D. What

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Many students find the experience of attending university lectures to be a confusing and frustrating experience. The lecturer speaks for one or two hours, perhaps 1 the talk with slides, writing up important information on the blackboard, 2 reading material and giving out 3 .The new student sees the other students continuously writing on notebooks and 4 what to write. Very often the student leaves the lecture 5 notes which do not catch the main points and 6 become hard even for the 7 to understand.
Most institutions provide courses which 8 new students to develop the skills they need to be 9 listeners and note-takers. 10 these are unavailable, there are many useful study-skills guides which 11 learners to practice these skills 12 .In all cases it is important to 13 the problem 14 actually starting your studies.
It is important to 15 that most students have difficulty in acquiring the language skills 16 in college study. One way of 17 these difficulties is to attend the language and study-skills classes which most institutions provide throughout the 18 year. Another basic 19 is to find a study partner 20 it is possible to identify difficulties, exchange ideas and provide support.
1.A.extending B. illustrating C. performing D. conducting
2.A.attributing B. contributing C. distributing D. explaining
3.A.assignments B. information C. content D. definition
4.A.suspects B. understands C. wonders D. convinces
5.A.without B. with C. on D. except
6.A.what B. those C. as D. which
7.A.teachers B. classmates C. partners D. students
8.A.prevent B. require C. assist D. forbid
9.A.effective B. passive C. relative D. expressive
10.A.Because B. Though C. Whether D. If
11.A.enable B. stimulate C. advocate D. prevent
12.A.independently B. repeatedly C. logically D. generally
13.A.evaluate B. acquaint C. tackle D. formulate
14.A.before B. after C. while D. for
15.A.predict B. acknowledge C. argue D. ignore
16.A.to require B. required C. requiring D. are required
17.A.preventing B. withstanding C. sustaining D. overcoming
18.A.average B. ordinary C. normal D. academic
19.A.statement B. strategy C. situation D. suggestion
20.A.in that B. for which C. with whom D. such as

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Human needs seem endless. When a hungry man gets a meal, he begins to think about an overcoat, when a manager gets a new sports car, a big house and pleasure boats dance into view. The many needs of mankind might be regarded as making up several levels. When there is money enough to satisfy one level of needs, another level appears. The first and most basic level of needs involves food. Once this level is satisfied, the second level of needs, clothing and some sort of shelter, appears. By the end of World War I1, these needs were satisfied for a great majority of Americans. Then a third level appeared. It included such items as automobiles and new houses. By 1957 or 1958 this third level of needs was fairly well satisfied. Then, in the late 1950s, a fourth level of needs appeared: the "life-enriching" level. While the other levels involve physical satisfaction, that is. the feed in comfort, safety, and transportation, this level stresses mental needs for recognition, achievement, and happiness. It includes a variety of goods and services, many of which could be called "luxury" items. Among them are vacation trips, the best medical and dental care, and recreation. Also included here are fancy goods and the latest styles in clothing. On the fourth level, a lot of money is spent on services, while on the first three levels more is spent on goods. Will consumers raise their sights to a fifth level of needs as their income increases, or will they continue to demand luxuries and personal services on the fourth level? A fifth level would probably involve needs that can be achieved best by community action. Consumers may be spending more on taxes to pay for government action against disease, ignorance, crime, and prejudice. After filling our stomachs, our clothes closets, our garages, our teeth, and our minds, we now may seek to ensure the health, safety, and leisure to enjoy more fully the good things on the first four levels.
1. According to the passage, man will begin to think about such needs as housing and clothing only when __________
A. he has saved up enough money B. he has grown dissatisfied with his simple shelter
C. he has satisfied his hunger D. he has learned to build houses
2. It can be inferred from the passage that by the end of World War II, most Americans __________.
A. were very rich B. lived in poverty
C. had the good things on the first three levels D. did not own automobiles
3. Which of the following is NOT related to "physical satisfaction"?
A. A successful career. B. A comfortable home. C. A good meal. D. A family car.
4. What is the main concern of man on the fourth level?
A. The more goods the better. B. The more mental satisfaction the better.
C. The more "luxury" items the better. D. The more earnings the better.
5. The author tends to think that the fifth level __________
A. would be little better than the fourth level B. may be a lot more desirable than the first four
C. can be the last and most satisfying level D. will become attainable before the government takes actions.

V.写作(30分)
说明:请你用30分钟的时间给你以前的同学写一封信,字数必须在80个字以上,并且所写的内容必须包含以下三项:
1.放假想与对方一起去旅游。
2.向对方介绍自己有意向的地方。
3.询问对方意见及其他提议。

测试题(五)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. Why don't you travel to New York on vacation? ___________________________.
A. I don't want to go B. Excuse me, because I can't
C. I want to but I haven't got enough money D. Because I'm going to school today.
2. Sorry, I must be leaving for office now. ______________________.
A. It’s so good. B. Have a nice trip. C. Wish you safe and sound.  D. Nice talking with you.
3. By no means __________ our mistakes.
A. we ought ignore B. we ought to ignore C. ought we ignore D. ought we to ignore
4. The teacher has his students __________ a composition every other week.
A. to write B. written C. writing D. write
5. Give the books to __________ needs them for the English class and the writing class.
A. whomever B. whom C. who D. whoever
6. A solid is different from a liquid __________the solid has its definite
shape.
A. in that B. in which C. in what D. because of which
7. It is because he is kind and modest __________ he wins the respect of others.
A. what B. which C. why D. that
8. The little boy saw the plane __________ and burst into flames.
A. complete B. compel C. crash D. clutch
9. Beijing is well __________ its beautiful scenery and the Great Wall.
A. known as B. known to C. known about D. known for
10. From her conversation, I __________ that she had a large family.
A. deduced B. decided C. declared D. deceived

 

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
Most people have no idea of the hard work and worry that go into the collecting of those fascinating birds and animals that they pay to see in the zoo. One of the questions that is always asked of me is 1 I became an animal collector in the first 2 .The answer is that I have always been interested in animals and zoos. According to my parents, the first word I was able to say with any 3 was not the conventional “mamma” or “daddy”, 4 the word“ zoo”, which I would 5 over and over again with a shrill 6 until someone, in group to 7 me up, would take me to the zoo. When I 8 a little older, we lived in Greece and I had a great 9 of pets, ranging from owls to seahorses, and I spent all my spare time 10 the countryside in search of fresh specimens to 11 to my collection of pets. 12 on I went for a year to the City Zoo, as a student 13 , to get experience of the large animals, such as lions, bears, bison and ostriches, 14 were not easy to keep at home. When I left, I 15 had enough money of my own to be able to 16 my first trip and I have been going 17 ever since then. Though a collector's job is not an easy one and is full of 18 ,it is certainly a job which will appeal 19 all those who love animals and 20 .
1.A. how B. where C. when D. whether
2.A. region B. field C. place D. case
3.A.clarity B. emotion C. sentiment D. affection
4.A.except B. but for C. except D. but for
5.A.recite B. recognize C. read D. repeat
6.A.volume B. noise C. voice D. pitch
7.A.close B. shut C. stop D. comfort
8.A.grew B. was growing C. grow D. grown
9.A.many B. amount C. number D. supply
10.A.living B. cultivating C. reclaiming D. exploring
11.A.increase B. include C. add D. enrich
12.A.later B. further C. then D. subsequently
13.A.attendant B. keeper C. member D. aide
14.A.who B. they C. of which D. which
15.A.luckily B. gladly C. nearly D. successfully
16.A.pay B. provide C .allow D. finance
17.A.normally B. regularly C. usually D. often
18.A.expectations B. sorrows C. excitement D. disappointments
19.A.for B. with C. to D. from
20.A.excursion B. travel C. journey D. Trip

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
Adam Smith was the first person to see the importance of the division of the labor. He gave us an example of the process by which pins were made in England.
"One man draws out the wire, another strengthens it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, and a fifth gives it a head. Just to make the head requires two or three different operations. The work of making pins is divided into about eighteen different operations, which in some factories are all performed by different people, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.
Ten men, Smith said, in this way, turned out twelve pounds of pins a day or about 4800 pins a worker.( But if all of them had worked separately and independently without division of labor, they certainly could not have made twenty pins in a day and not even one.
There can be no doubt that division of labor is an efficient way of organizing work. Fewer people can make more pins. Adam Smith saw this, but he also took it for granted that division of labor is itself responsible for economic growth and development and it accounts for the difference between expanding economies and those that stand still. But division of labor adds nothing new, it only enables people to produce more of what they already have.
1. According to the passage, Adam Smith was the first person to__________
A. take advantage of the physical labor B. introduce the division of labor into England
C. understand the effects of the division of labor D. explain the bad causes of the division of labor
2. Adam Smith saw that the division of labor__________
A. enabled each worker to design pins more quickly B. increased the possible output per worker
C. increased the number of people employed in factories D. improved the quality of pins produced
3. Adam Smith mentioned the number 4800 in order to__________
A. show the advantages of the old labor system B. stress how powerful the individual worker was
C. show the advantages of the division of labor D. stress the importance of increased production
4. According to the writer, Adam Smith's mistake was in believing that the division of labor__________
A. was an efficient way of organizing work B. was an important development in methods of production
C. finally led to economic development D. increased the production of existing goods
5. According to the writer, which one of the following is NOT tree?
A. Division of labor can enable fewer people to make more pins.
B. Division of labor helps people to produce more of what they already have.
C. Division of labor is by no means responsible for economic growth.
D. Division of labor is an efficient way of organizing work.

V.写作(30分)
说明:请你用30分钟的时间给你以前的同学写一封信,字数必须在80个字以上,并且所写的内容必须包含以下三项:
1.询问对方现在工作/学习情况。
2.即将毕业想到对方城市找工作,希望对方能提供帮助。
3.邀请对方可以随时来自己的城市玩。

测试题(六)
I.单项选择(每题2分)
1. You really helped me a lot. Thank you very much. ________________.
A. Nothing important.  B. It's my pleasure. C. That’s ok. D. Never mind, forget it.
2. Congratulations! You won the first prize in today's speech contest. _____________________________.
A. Yes, I beat the others  B. No, no, I didn't do it well
C. Thank you       D. It's a pleasure
3. Your mother told me that you overslept this morning, __________?
A. didn't she B. didn't you C. did she D. did you
4. __________, he felt tired out after the long journey for eight hours.
A. Strong as he is B. The stronger he is C. Strong man that he is D. For he Is strong
5. They have agreed that they will __________to the policy and will not change it.
A. commit B. stick C. combine D. fall
6. The company has to __________the benefits against the costs in the last three months.
A. boast B. blame C. block D. balance
7. We've __________paper and ink. Ask Mrs. Edward to lend us some.
A. run away with B. run out of C. run off D. run down
8. Some cities have passed laws that allow coal and oil __________only if their sulfur content is low.
A. burning B. to burn C. being burned D. to be burned
9. Space vehicles were launched into outer space __________ search of another living planet.
A. to B. at C. in D. for
10. You two have got a lot __________.
A. in general B. in common C. in all D. in any case

II.改错(每题2分)
1

III.完形填空(每题1分)
The role of women in Britain has changed a lot in this century, _1_ in the last twenty years. The main change has been _2_giving women greater equality with men. _3_ to the beginning of this century, women seem to have had _4_ rights. They could not vote and were kept at home. _5_, as far as we know, most women were happy _6_ this situation. Today, women in Britain certainly_7_ more rights than they used to. They were _8_the vote in 1919. In 1970 a law was passed to give them an equal _9_of wealth in the case of divorce, _10_the Equal Pay Act gave them the right_11_equal pay with men for work of equal value in the same year.
Yet _12_these changes, there are still great difference in status between men and women. Many employers seem to _13_the Equal Pay Act, and the average working women is _14_to earn only about half_15_a man earns for the same job. _16_a survey, at present, only one-third of the country’s workers are _17_women. This small percentage is partly_18_a shortage of nurseries. If there were _19_nurseries, twice as many women_20_go out to work.
1. A. certainly B. especially C. apparently D. practically
2. A. towards B. against C. upon D. through
3. A. By B. On C. Over D. Up
4. A. few B. less C. some D. many
5. A. Besides B. Therefore C. However D. Then
6. A. at B. to C. with D. for
7. A. lack B. enjoy C. occupy D. take
8.A. given B. deprived C. denied D. approved
9. A. rate B. value C. number D. share
10. A. but B. and C. because D. although
11. A. of B. with C. on D. for
12. A. because of B. instead of C. in spite of D. as a result of
13. A. support B. favour C. ignore D. doubt
14. A. likely B. willing C. ready D. about
15. A than B. that C. which D. what
16. A. Apart form to B. According to C. Because of D. In addition
17. A. by mistake B. by accident C. in turn D. in fact
18. A. involved in from B. stemmed C. related to D. resulted in
19.A. efficient B. advanced C. delicate D. enough
20.A. might well B. had better C. are going to D. are about to
IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
We use both words and gestures to express our feelings, but the problem is that these words and gestures can be understood in different ways. It is true that a smile means the same thing in any language. So does laughter or crying. There are also a number of striking similarities in the way different animals show the same feelings. Dogs, tigers and humans, for example, often show their teeth when they are angry. This is probably because they are born with those behavior patterns. Fear is another emotion that is shown in much the same way all over the world. (80) In Chinese and in English literature, a phrase like "he went pale and begin to tremble" suggests that the man is either very afraid or he has just got a very big shock. However, "he opened his eyes wide" is used to suggest anger in Chinese whereas in English it means surprise. In Chinese "surprise" can be described in a phrase like 'they stretched out their tongues!' Sticking out your tongue in English is an insulting gesture or expresses strong dislike. Even in the same culture, people differ in ability to understand and express feelings. Experiments in America have shown that women are usually better than men at recognizing fear, anger, love and happiness on people's faces. Other studies show that older people usually find it easier to recognize or understand body language than younger people do.
1. According to the passage, __________.
A. we can hardly understand what people's gestures mean
B. we can not often be sure what people mean when they describe their feelings in words or gestures
C. words can be better understood by older people
D. gestures can be understood by most of the people while words can not
2. People's facial expressions may be misunderstood because __________.
A. people of different ages may have different understanding
B. people have different cultures
C. people of different sex may understand a gesture in a different way
D. people of different countries speak different languages
3. In the same culture, __________.
A. people have different ability to understand and express feelings
B. people have the same understanding of something
C. people never fail to understand each other
D. people are equally intelligent
4. From this passage, we can conclude __________.
A. words are used as frequently as gestures B. words are often found difficult to understand
C. words and gestures are both used in expressing feelings D. gestures are more efficiently used than words
5. The best title for this passage may be __________.
A. Words and Feelings B. Words, Gestures and Feelings
C. Gestures and Feelings D. Culture and Understanding

V.写作(30分)
说明:请你用30分钟的时间给你以前的同学写一封信,字数必须在80个字以上,并且所写的内容必须包含以下三项:
1.期末考试快到了自己这边忙碌准备
2.询问对方现在的工作/学习情况。
3.自己考试后的安排。
(请将答案做在本期第54页“《大学英语 》作业”答题纸上)

课程学习
《刑法分论》课程的特点及学习方法

??? 北京大学法学院组织编写的北京大学远程教育法学试用教材《刑法分论》(附光盘)已于2002年3月出版。本书是远程教育专科升本科学历教育的指定教材,也可作为法学本科学习以及法律职业考试以及培训的工具用书和参考用书。在它提供给全国各地公检法系统及社会班学员和老师学习使用一年来,获得了较高的评价,取得了较好的效果。作为本学期刑法分则助教,在此我想就这部教材的特点、内容及教学方法作一些说明,以利于学员们更好地学习刑法分论知识。
一、《刑法分论》的特点
本教材是专门针对远程网络教育而编写的,建立于现代互联网技术之上的网络远程教育以其授课便捷、自主性强、传播知识速度快等特点为学员提供了更多学习深造的机会,同时也为技术的支持和教材的编写提供了一定的难度。正是基于此,本教材有了不同于以往其它普遍教材以及学历教育教材的显著特点。总体来说,这就是,简练和切合司法实践。
首先,本教材较之一般教材更为简练。刑法分论应是很复杂很难用只言片语可以言明的问题,但本书以简短的篇幅来向学员讲授这个问题,一则这是照顾到远程教育以自学和语音教学为主的教学方法,教材只是整个刑法分论学习的一个梗概,对于自学刑法基础的学员来说,过于艰深过于复杂的教材并不能带来正面的学习效果,因此本书采用了由浅入深由表及里的思维,力图将最基础最普适的刑法理论用简练平实的文字表达于教材之中,而将更为具体更为详尽的内容布置在随书附带的教学光盘之中,同时结合远程教育中的网上答疑及教授讲评,组成一个由低到高逐层次提升的教学体系。因此,光盘和其它媒体的教学资料也是本教材不可或缺的一个组成部分。二则,这也是照顾到学历教育的难度问题,不故作艰深强人所难,也不单纯追逐理论脱离实际,而是以平显和清新的语调讲述刑法分论知识,并注重与实际生活的案例、刑法现象、刑法条文相结合,从这个意义上讲,简练是叙述方式的简练。当然,这里的简练只是形式上的简练,而不是内容上的简省,本书对于刑法分论知识介绍是全面的。
其次,本教材与刑法条文结合较为紧密,实践性较强。在本教材中,考虑到教学的目的是为提高法律实务界的法律知识水平和社会成员更容易地掌握刑法知识、参与社会实践,必须注重对现行刑法法条的解释,因此本教材也体现出与刑法条文的紧密联系。从这种意义上讲,本教材实际上是对我国现行刑法的诠注,运用的研究方法主要是注释法学的方法。对于实务界的学员来说,这种写作方法是适宜的。
二、《刑法分则》的学习方法
对于学习的刑法的学员来说,掌握好刑法的前提是要有法治的精神。公民的自由主要依据良好的刑法,这是孟德斯鸠对自由与刑法关系的科学概括。作为裁判规范与行为规范的统一,刑法不仅限制了司法擅断,也为人们评价他人行为,规范自己的行为提供了一套具体的标准和判断依据,刑法分论的学习能使大家从不知到有知,从知之不多到系统把握,树立正确的权利义务观念及独立自由的法治精神。
对于刑法学习具体方法要注意两点,第一是处理好法条和法理的关系。刑法一方面是一种理论,这种理论又是建立在刑法条文之上的,对法律条文的一种解释,因此要处理好法条与法理的关系。在学习的时候应当从理论上来加以展开和把握,但最后在注重法理另一方面又要回到法条之上,对刑法条文要熟练掌握。可以说我们刑法的绝大部分内容都与法律条文有关。法律条文既是我们学习的出发点,也是我们学习的归宿。我们的教材编写的宗旨也是为了帮助我们掌握刑法条文,学完了这本教材,再来看刑法条文,你就能理解条文并灵活运用。在学习时要将书和法律条文结合起来对照看,最后要重点掌握法律条文。
第二点,是要注重案例和法条的关系,在我们书中讲的法条在现实生活中都是具体的一些案件,当然我们又不能就案论案,而是要从理论上来加以解决,这就要求我们同时注意刑法基本理论的学习,注意案例中间的刑法基本原理,用法条和原理来解决这些案例。刑法基本原理与案例有着密切联系,一方面,我们要注意刑法基本原理的学习,另一方面,又要将基本原理运用到案例中,来解决具体案例中提出的疑难问题。要把刑法基本原理学习和具体案件的学习两者很好地结合起来。这就要求我们的学员在学习的时候一是要以案说法,找一些与刑法分论对应的典型案例(如案例教程)对照着学习,在学习案例过程中掌握刑法分论问题;二是要求我们的学员在学习分论之后找一些案例来加以具体地解决,运用总论知识。从案例中来,到案例中去。
《商法》课程的特点、内容、体系及学习方法

为配合北京大学法学院法学远程(网络)教育商法课程的讲授和学习,北京大学法学院刘凯湘教授编著了北京大学现代远程教育法学试用教材《商法》(司法考试结合版)。该教材深入浅出地介绍了公司、破产、票据、保险、海商等主要的商事法律制度,将对广大学员的学习起到促进作用。下面,将谈谈学员所关心的一些问题。
一、《商法》教材的特点
一般的商法学教材包括总论和分论两个部分,其中,总论通常会介绍商法的意义、特点、历史、商主体、商行为、商号、商事登记等内容,而分论通常会介绍公司、破产、票据、保险、海商等具体的商事法律制度。由于我国商法总论的研究还比较薄弱,并且考虑到远程教育的特点以及学员的实际需求,本教材只介绍具体的商事法律制度,而不包括商法总论的内容。
除此以外,本教材还有以下几个特点:
1.注重基本概念、基础知识和基本理论的阐述和讲解,尽量避免涉及深奥晦涩或者有争议的问题,以方便学员的学习和应用。
2.紧密结合法条。本教材的每一章均对应一部或者数部法律、法规或者司法解释,在介绍基本概念和基本理论的同时,对我国现行的商事法律制度进行比较全面和详细的讲解和剖析。
3.密切结合国家司法考试。本教材的体例、主要内容与国家司法考试指定教材相似,学员可以通过对本教材的学习提前了解和掌握国家司法考试商法科目的主要内容。
二、《商法》教材的内容和体系
本教材共有八章,我们可以从理论上将其划分为商主体法和商行为法两个部分,前者包括教材的前五章,后者包括教材的后三章。
第一章公司法,包括公司法总论,公司的设立、变更、合并、分立、解散、清算,公司的财务与会计制度,公司的董事、监事、高级管理人员,公司债券,外国公司的分支机构,有限责任公司和股份有限公司等内容。公司是最基本的商主体,本章是本教材最重要的一章。
第二至四章分别为合伙企业法、个人独资企业法和外商投资企业法,介绍了除公司以外的其他商主体的法律制度。
第五章为破产法,破产为商主体资不抵债时的一种救济方式,从这个角度讲,破产法也属于商主体法的内容。
第六至八章分别为票据法、保险法和海商法,介绍了票据、保险和海商等主要的商行为或者说商事交易方式。
需要注意的是,商法的内容比较繁杂和分散,商法各部分之间不存在逻辑上的联系,因此,教材的各章可以自成一体。
三、《商法》的学习方法
商法作为一个相对独立的法律部门或法律学科,有着与其他法律部门与学科不同的特点,同时又与相邻法律部门特别是民法有着十分紧密的联系,理解这种特点对于学好本学科以及取得理想的司法考试成绩都非常重要。
从本质而言,即依法的性质为标准的划分,商法属于私法,以对私权利与利益的保护为本旨,以对商事交易活动提供规则为内容。商法与民法有着极为深刻的历史渊源上的联系,先有民法,后有商法,商法脱胎于民法,民法中的很多制度、原则、精神对商法规范有着直接的适用意义。所以学习商法、掌握商法,首先要有比较好的民法基础,这是十分重要的。例如,民法中的法律行为制度、私权制度、代理制度、法人制度、合伙制度、诉讼时效制度、合同制度等,均直接或间接地存在于商法制度中,构成商法的逻辑与概念基础,且对于整个商法的理论与制度设计极为重要。
但是,商法又不同于民法,不能简单地将商法理解为民法的特别法。事实上,商法的很多制度、原则与精神已经超越了民法,举凡票据法、保险法、海商法、破产法以及公司法等商法的分支部门,都有着较强烈的专业性、技术性,难以依据市民社会的一般生活经验与习惯进行推导。例如公司法中表决权的行使规则、股票的发行与交易规则等,票据法中追索权的行使、法定记载事项的确定,票据的抗辩等,保险法中的保险利益原则与近因原则、理赔与精算、代位求偿权的行使规则等,破产法中的破产宣告程序与后果、破产债权的确定、别除权、取回权等,专业性与技术性都很强,如果仅有民法的基础而不对这些学科有专门与深入的研习,是很难真正掌握和理解好这些原理与制度的。
商法与民法不同的另一个显著特点是,商法是由若干既有一定联系但更有显著不同的分支部门或分支学科组成,如商法,是由公司法、合伙法、破产法、票据法、保险法、海商法等相对独立的法律部门组成,这些分支学科或分支部门尽管有一定的相通性,但差异是主要的,各自的内容基本上都只适用于本学科领域,具有较强的独立适用性与封闭性,并无相对明显的逻辑脉络将各学科串连起来。
基于商法的上述特点,对本学科的学习提出以下建议,供大家参考。
1.要联系民法的基本理论与制度进行学习,复习时要回忆起与民法相关的知识,做到融会贯通。
前面已经说过,商法与民法有着十分密切的联系,学习时一定要在脑子中带着民法的思维,运用民法的理论与制度去分析、理解商法中的理论与制度。例如,公司法中的核心问题之一就是围绕公司这一组织机构而形成的各利益主体之间的权利保护问题,包括股东的权利、公司本身的权利、公司债权人的权利,而权利问题是民法的根本问题,民法已经对各种民事权利的取得、内容、效力等作出了规定,把握权利这根主线,就能把公司法的主要问题有机地串起来:股东的权利是一种社员权,是一种独立类型的民事权利,包括自益权与共益权,其权利取得方式、行使途径、丧失事由等由公司法及公司章程作出规定;公司债权人的权利是一种请求权,主要依合同法的规则及破产法的规则而行使与救济;公司自身的权利则是各种权利的结合体,既有物权,又有债权,还有知识产权、人格权等,各依相关的法律而行使与救济。所以,从某种意义上说,公司法的全部问题都可以归结到这些权利主体的权利取得、权利行使、权利救济、权利消灭等这样一根主线上来,这一理念实际上决定了整个公司法的制度设计与安排,体现在公司法的各个方面。如果没有这样一个主线,就难以把握公司法的实质与灵魂,所以说民法的基础对于学习商法是至为重要的。
2.要联系法律条文进行学习,不能完全是抽象的理解。
目前,商法中的主要分支我国都颁布了相应的法律、法规,这些法律法规对于学习与研究很重要,是商法学习与研究最基本的素材,如《中华人民共和国公司法》、《中华人民共和国合伙企业法》等。仅看教材,不联系法律法规,对立法没有感性的认识,就难以对法律有全面而深刻的理解,尤其对于商法这样应用性极强的法律部门更是如此。法律条文往往是一个法律学科的高度浓缩与抽象,集中了这个法律部门的名词术语,囊括了这个法律部门的制度内容,体现了这个法律部门的宗旨理念,是反映这一法律部门文明成果的最高形式,所以研习法律特别是部门法的人如果说不看法条那是不可想象的。要对照教材与法条,反复揣摩,仔细领会,方可得立法之旨趣与法理之精髓。事实上,一部法律的逻辑体例与篇章安排往往就是该部门法的学科体系与理论脉络,加之大陆法系的概念法学与注释法学之特征,教材往往根据立法的体系而撰写,所以在有了一定的基础之后,看教材与看法条已是殊途同归之事,若达此境界,则得其真经矣。
以《合伙企业法》为例:除第一章总则和第八章法律责任外,其他各章依次为合伙企业的设立、合伙企业的财产、合伙企业的事务执行、合伙企业与第三人的关系、入伙与退伙、合伙企业的解散与清算,这些章名实际上已经包括了整个合伙企业法的制度内容,这与一般关于合伙企业法教材的体系也是基本上一致的,看法条就等于看教材。
当然,看法条绝对不是说要去背法条,无论是对于法律学习还是考试,一字不落地背下法律条文是绝无必要的。看法条、读法条的目的不在于背诵或记忆,而在于更好地理解和领会法律的原意和精神,以利融会贯通。
3.要善于抓住重点学科和学科中的重点、疑点问题,分清主次
商法学的内容,可以分为商主体法和商行为法两个部分。前5章,即课程中,公司法、合伙企业法、个人独资企业法、外商投资企业法和破产法,属于商主体法,其中,公司法最重要,破产法次之,合伙企业法、外商投资企业法也比较重要,个人独资企业法相对不太重要。票据法、保险法和海商法属于商行为法,其中,票据法和保险法比较重要,海商法不太重要。
从考试、特别是司法考试的角度来说,各个部分的重要程度和我们前面所列的顺序相同。但是要注意一点,刚刚修订的法律,一般会重点考查;即将修订的法律,一般不会重点考查。另外,海商法的部分内容和国际经济法重合,在国际经济法课程学习更好一点。
4.多做一些练习
我们说理论和实际相结合,是一个很好的学习方法。但是,对大部分学员来说,恐怕没有机会接触法律方面的实际工作,即使有,也很难接触到破产法、票据法、海商法等专业性很强的领域。因此,对大家来说,所谓理论联系实际,就是要多做一些习题,在人们模拟的实际环境中理解、掌握和巩固所学的知识。建议大家在选择资料时一定要慎重,最好是选择正规的、大的出版社,特别是法律类图书有声望的出版社的书,如法律出版社、中国政法大学出版杜、北京大学出版社等,所出版的练习题。
需要强调的是,学习方法是因人而异的,上面介绍的只是一般的学习方法,大家在学习过程中也可以根据具体情况选择适合自己的学习方法。

 

《宪法学》课程的特点、内容、体系及学习方法

本教材是北京大学法学院甘超英副教授为远程教育的宪法学课程编著的。作为一项课程,宪法学主要是系统地介绍宪法及宪法理论的一般知识,为其他部门法的学习奠定基础。
一、《宪法学》课程的特点
1.宪法学是法学基础理论课程。宪法学是研究国家制度、国家权力和公民权利义务关系的法学基础理论课程,主要涉及到宪法的基本理论、宪法的历史发展、国家性质和形式、公民的基本权利和义务以及国家机构等内容。通过本课程的学习,可以使学生对我国的宪政制度有进一步了解,树立学生的宪法观念,为其他部门法学的学习打好基础。
2.宪法学的知识较为宏观。宪法规范往往涉及国家基本的制度安排、公民最基本的权利义务,原则性较强。因此,与民商法、刑法、行政法、诉讼法等部门法学的知识相比较,宪法学的知识也表现出较为宏观的特点。
3.宪法学的知识政治性较强。政治性是宪法规范的一个突出特征。这个特征也要求同学们在学习过程中联系政治学等学科的知识,并注意观察国家的政治生活实际。
二、《宪法学》课程的内容
宪法学在学科体系大体上分为关于宪法理论的科学和关于宪法制度的科学这两大部分,就宪法理论而言,第一章集中介绍宪法的基本理论,实际上是学习宪法学的入门知识,其他一些理论问题则散见于以后的各个章节;就宪法制度而言,它们是我们这本书的重点,除第一章外,其他各章均谈的是宪法制度问题,也就是我国宪法所规定的国家制度的内容。由于本书是作为教科书来编辑的,所以重点并非理论,而是实际的制度。对于这一点,学生们应特别注意。
第一章是宪法概论。宪法概论是以解决什么是宪法的问题而展开的。关于宪法的分类、原则、监督等等,都围绕此展开。
第二章是宪法的历史。 宪法最早产生于17世纪的英国。世界上第一个成文宪法是美国宪法。1791年法国宪法是欧洲大陆的第一部成文宪法。1918年苏俄宪法是第一部社会主义类型的宪法。1924年苏联宪法是第一个社会主义国家的宪法。1949年的共同纲领起了临时宪法的作用。1954年宪法是我国建国以来的第一部宪法。1975年宪法是文革宪法。1978年宪法是华国锋宪法。1982年宪法是邓小平时代改革开放的宪法。 1982年宪法有四次修改,分别是1988年、1993年、1999年和2004年。其中应注意的是宪法对各种经济上的所有制的态度是不一样的:对国有经济是保障其巩固和发展,对集体经济是鼓励、指导和帮助,对非公有制经济是引导、监督和管理。
第三章是国家性质。 这一章论述宪法第一条“中华人民共和国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家。 社会主义制度是中华人民共和国的根本制度。禁止任何组织或者个人破坏社会主义制度。”所以,本章其中论述到工人、农民、工农联盟、知识分子、统一战线和精神文明等。
第四章是国家形式。国家形式包括政权组织形式和国家结构形式。国家结构形式是指单一制、联邦制和邦联制等。我国是单一制,美国、德国和印度等是联邦制。政权组织形式是指代议制、人民代表大会制、总统制、议会内阁制等。国旗、国徽,国歌和首都等,是国家的标志,也属于国家的形式。
第五章是公民的基本权利和义务。公民的基本权利和义务,有以下几个内容:第一,公民的基本权利和义务包括哪些内容;第二,公民的基本权利和义务,与前三部宪法相比,有什么发展变化;第三,我国公民基本权利和义务有什么特点。 我国宪法从33条开始,到50条都是公民的基本权利,52条到56条都是公民的基本义务,51条则承上启下,规定公民在行使权利和自由时,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的和其他公民合法和权利和利益。 我国宪法规定公民的第一项权利是公民的平等权,其次是公民的选举权,六大政治自由和宗教信仰自由、人身自由、逮捕和逮捕的程序、人格尊严、住宅不受侵犯、通信权、以及取得国家赔偿的权利等。公民的基本义务有纳税、服兵役等义务。
第六章是选举制度。选举制度主要有两种:一种是选人大代表,一种是选国家公职人员。本章则是指人民代表的选举,其内容主要包括选举程序和选举的基本原则。我国在县级和县级以下,实行直接选举,县级以上,则是间接选举。选举程序大致包括:提名候选人,酝酿候选人和确定正式候选人,投票和宣布选举结果;在直接选举中,则包括选区划分和选民登记等。
第七章是中央国家机关。我国中央国家机关,是指全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会、中华人民共和国主席、国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院。掌握它们的性质、地位、组成、任期、会议制度和职权,其中以职权尤为重要。
第八章是地方国家机关。 地方国家机构包括三个方面的内容,一个是一般行政地方,然后是民族自治地方,再是特别行政区。一般行政地方是讲人大、政府、法院和检察院。民族自治地方是指自治区、自治州和自治县。自治机关是指人大和政府。自治权是指有制定自治条例和单行条例等各种权力。特别行政区,则包括特别行政区有哪些高度自治权,中央和特别行政区的关系等。村民委员会和居民委员会不是国家机关,是基层群众自治性组织。街道办事处和乡政府对居民委员会,村民委员会的关系不是领导关系,而是指导关系。
三、《宪法学》课程的学习方法
1.理解宪法基本理论。虽然宪法的基本理论在本课程中所占的比重较小,但是对于宪法基本理论的深入理解,对于学习具体的宪法制度是有较大帮助的。因而,在本课程的学习过程中,特别是在课程学习初期,同学们应当对宪法学的基本概念、原理有一个较为准确地把握,围绕教材、结合参考书掌握基础知识。
2.牢记具体宪法制度。宪法制度所涉及的内容较为庞杂,有国家性质和形式、公民的基本权利和义务以及国家机构等。同学们在学习这部分知识的过程中,一方面要认真阅读教材,另一方面还要阅读法律条文,除《宪法》外,例如立法法、选举法、各组织法等宪法性法律的法律条文都要认真学习。
3.联系生活实际。虽然宪法规范所涉及的司法诉讼较为有限,在我国更是寥寥无几。但是,宪法规范在实际生活中的运用和体现还是很多的,例如各级人大的召开、选举的进行等等。同学们在学习过程中应当联系这些生活实际。

 

《中国法制史》课程的特点、内容、体系及教学方法

为配合北京大学法学院法学远程(网络)教育中国法制史课程,北京大学法学院赵昆坡教授编著了北京大学法学远程教育试用教材《中国法制史》。该教材既有利于学员掌握基础知识,同时便于在网上学习之余复习相关内容,对广大学员提高学习效率以及学以致用都会起到潜移默化的作用。
一、《中国法制史》教材的特点
该教材是为远程(网络)教育编写的,与一般普通高校教材相比较,其性质和编写的指导思想大致相同,但作为辅导学员网上学习的教材,它在内容和体系等方面又有自己的特殊之处。具体表现在以下几点:
1.该教材的体例清晰,编排合理。将中国法制史按照年代分为九章,从公元前26世纪中国法律制度的起源、夏朝的建立到1949年中华人民共和国成立之前,将中国法律制度5000多年的历史循序渐进地包涵在内。具体分为第一章:中国法律制度的起源和夏朝的法律制度;第二章:商和西周的法律制度;第三章:春秋战国时期的法律制度;第四章:秦汉的法律制度;第五章:三国两晋南北朝时期的法律制度;第六章:隋唐五代的法律制度;第七章:宋辽金元的法律制度;第八章:明清及太平天国的法律制度;第九章:中华民国和人民民主政权的法律制度。在具体的每一章每个朝代中,按立法制度、刑事法律制度、司法制度等几个方面阐述。学员通读教材后,对中国法制史每个朝代的具体内容和特点都能有一个清晰的了解和宏观的把握。
2.该教材适应远程(网络)教育的特点,简明易懂。作为远程网络教育的辅导教材,该教材语言简明,同时,附有教学大纲,使学员对整个的学习进度和内容安排心中有底,有助于学员根据自己的学习情况,调整自己的学习计划。总之,掌握和利用好这部教材,对学员学好中国法制史学这门课程,是非常有意义的。
二、《中国法制史》教材的内容和体系
该教材共分三个部分九章内容:
第一部分为教材的导论、第一章和第二章,讲述了中国法律制度的起源和奴隶社会的法律制度。导论介绍了中国法制史的定义,并介绍了为什么及怎样学习中国法制史。第一章分为两个部分;第一部分为中国法律制度的起源,介绍了原始社会的习俗惯例及向法律的过渡、夏朝是中国奴隶制法律制度的上限、中国奴隶制的法律制度的特点三个部分;第二部分为夏朝的法律制度,介绍了夏朝的立法、刑事法律制度、司法制度三个部分。第二章为商和西周的法律制度,分为两个部分:第一部分为商朝的法律制度,介绍了商朝的立法、刑事法律制度、民事法律制度和司法制度;第二部分为西周的法律制度,介绍了西周的立法、刑事法律制度、民事法律制度和司法制度。
第二部分为教材的第三章到第八章,讲述了中国漫长的封建社会的法律制度。在每一个朝代中,分为立法制度、刑事法律制度、民事法律制度、司法、监察制度四个方面。立法制度分为立法思想、立法阶段、法律形式、立法特点;刑事法律制度分为刑法原则、刑罚制度、主要罪名;民事法律制度介绍了各个朝代在民事法律制度方面的具体规定和法律制度;司法、监察制度分为司法机关、诉讼制度、监察制度。
第三部分为教材的第九章,讲述了中国封建社会瓦解后过渡时期的法律制度,分为中华民国和人民民主政权的法律制度。本章共分四节,第一节介绍了中华民国南京临时政府的法律制度,分为立法制度、宪法性法律、主要法令、司法制度;第二节介绍了中华民国北京政府(北洋政府)的法律制度,分为立法制度、宪法性法律和宪法、行政立法、刑事立法、民事立法、商事立法、司法制度;第三节介绍了中华民国南京国民政府的法律制度,分为立法制度、约法、宪法及其关系法、行政法、刑法和刑事特别法、民、商事立法、司法制度;第四节介绍了革命根据地人民民主政权的法律制度,分为立法制度、宪法性法律、主要立法、司法制度。
三、《中国法制史》课程的教学方法
1.纵向与横向的把握。中国法制史这门课程内容时间跨度大、内容覆盖面广,需要从纵、横两个方向来理清脉络。中国传统法制发展具有历史阶段性的特点。自夏朝建立至清朝灭亡四千余年间,中国传统法律制度在一步步地发展、成熟,其间的渊源继承关系十分明了。具体到各个朝代,又有立法制度、司法制度、刑事法制、民事法制等内容需要掌握。
2.了解和领会具体法律形态背后的社会思想。中国几千年的农耕社会,塑造了中国传统法律“依伦理而轻重其刑”的性格特点。在中国古代,确定罪的有无,决定刑的轻重,主要是依据伦理关系。在中国历史上,除了战国时代和秦代外,对法律制度影响最深的思想理论是儒家学派。所谓的“礼法结合”就是和儒家思想密切相关的。
3. 比较和分析的方法。法律制度的产生、发展,法律制度特色的形成,都与当时的政治、经济、文化、风俗传统等社会条件密切相关。在学习中应当学会比较各个相邻朝代的同异之处,找到其发展、演进的规律。这样就能轻松掌握各个朝代的内容。

 

《财政税收法》课程的特点、内容、体系及教学方法

为配合北京大学法学院法学远程(网络)教育财政税收法学课程,北京大学法学院刘剑文教授编著了北京大学法学远程教育试用教材《财政税收法》。该教材既有利于学员掌握基础知识,同时又便于在网上学习之余复习相关内容,对广大学员提高学习效率以及学以致用都会起到潜移默化的作用。
一、《财政税收法》教材的特点
该教材是为远程(网络)教育编写的,与一般普通高校教材相比较,其性质和编写的指导思想大致相同,但作为辅导学员网上学习的教材,它在内容和体系等方面又有自己的特殊之处。具体表现在以下几点:
1.该教材理论性强,理论与实践结合紧密。财政税收法是兼具理论性和实践性,但实践性偏重的一门学科,有许多基本概念和基础理论,例如财政、预算、国债、税收、税法等等;也有许多具体制度,例如预算管理制度、国债发行制度、各税种法律制度、税收征管制度等等,这需要学员深入理解和实际运用。教材深入浅出地阐述这些基础概念、理论和具体的执法和司法制度,注意把这些概念、理论和具体制度同我国的执法和司法实践结合起来。该教材最大的特点是在每一章节的开头都以一段名人名言作为引子,以问题为线索引导大家阅读、理解课文所阐述的内容,从而做到结合实践来注释理论,使大家在轻松之中掌握枯燥的理论知识,并能够运用理论来解决实际问题。
2.该教材的体例清晰,编排合理。从总体来看,该教材可以分为财政法和税法两大块内容。财政法包括第一至四章,论述了财政法的基本原理、财政管理体制法、预算法和国债法的具体制度;第二部分包括第五至十一章,论述了税法的基础理论、流转税、所得税、财产税和行为税的具体制度以及税收征管法和税收争讼法的基本制度。如此,整部教材遵循逻辑顺序,循序渐进。学员通读教材后,对财政税收法的基本理论和具体制度安排能有一个清晰的了解和宏观的把握。
3.该教材适应远程(网络)教育的特点,简明易懂。作为远程网络教育的辅导教材,该教材语言简明,同时,附有教学大纲,使学员对整个的学习进度和内容安排心中有底,有助于学员根据自己的学习情况,调整自己的学习计划。在教学大纲中还附有讨论思考题,学员可对学习的质量进行自我检测。总之,掌握和利用好这部教材,对学员学好财政税收法这门课程,都是非常有意义的。
二、《财政税收法》教材的内容和体系
该教材共有两个部分十一章内容。
第一部分是财政法,为教材的第一章到第四章。第一章是财政法的基础理论,介绍了财政经济学的一些基础理论、财政法的基础理论、财政法的历史发展和新世纪中国财政法的立法展望;第二章是财政管理体制法,论述了财政管理体制的概念、原则和模式,介绍了西方主要国家的财政管理体制、描绘了我国财政管理体制法的沿革,最后重点介绍了我国现行分税制财政管理体制法的基本制度,并对其提出了完善的立法建议;第三章是预算法,介绍了预算和预算法的基本概念,论述了预算管理体制、预算管理程序、预算决算的监督与预算法律责任,并对预算外资金的法律监管和我国预算法的发展和完善进行了论述;第四章为国债法,介绍了国债和国债法的基本理论,重点分析了国家内债法律制度和国家外债法律制度。以上基础理论和基本制度是财政法的核心内容,掌握这些内容就可以了解和掌握我国财政法律制度的大体轮廓和基本结构。
第二部分是税法,从总体上看,又可分为总论、税收实体法和税收程序法三个组成部分。总论为第五章,介绍了税收经济学的基础知识、论述了税法的概念、体系、效力、基本原则等基本理论、对税法的体系和税收立法体制进行了分析、对税收法律关系和税法的要素进行了重点论述,最后,对我国税法的产生与发展进行了简单描述。税收实体法包括第六章至第九章,分别论述了流转税法、所得税法、财产税法和行为税法的基本制度,在第六章流转税法中,除了介绍流转税法的基本理论问题以外,重点介绍了增值税法、营业税法、消费税法、城市维护建设税法、关税法和证券交易税法的基本制度,在第七章所得税法中,除了介绍所得税法的基础理论以外,重点介绍了企业所得税法、个人所得税法、农业税法和社会保障税法的基本制度,在第八章财产税法中,除了介绍财产税法的基础理论以外,重点介绍了房产税法、资源税法、土地使用税法、耕地占用税法、土地增值税法、车辆购置税法、车船使用税法、遗产税法和契税法的具体制度,在第九章行为税法中,除了介绍行为税法的基础理论以外,重点介绍了印花税法、筵席税法和屠宰税法的基本制度。在以上各税种法制度中,需要重点掌握的是流转税法和所得税法,它们是我国税种法律制度的核心组成部分,也是本教材的重点章节。税收程序法包括第十章和第十一章,分别论述了税收征管法律制度和税收争讼法律制度,在税收征管法律制度中重点论述了税务管理制度、发票管理制度、税款征收制度、税务检查制度、税务代理制度和税收法律责任,在税收争讼法律制度中则重点论述了税收行政复议制度和税收行政诉讼制度。
三、《财政税收法》课程的教学方法
1.理论与实际相结合。财政税收法是实践性很强的学科,特别是其中的税法,操作性更强,仅仅靠书本上的理论知识是远远不够的,理论知识必须与具体的实践操作相结合,在学习中,就需要通过大量的案例分析和计算来掌握各税种的具体法律制度,并通过对具体法律制度的掌握来理解基本的理论知识。
2.点与面的结合。由于财政税收法律制度的触角很多,因此在授课时要注意在逐节逐章讲述的基础上,从宏观上和整体上清理出脉络和体系。把具体的知识点与整体的结构和体系结合起来,是学习本课程的重要方法,要学会在头脑中形成一个知识结构网或知识结构树,通过这个网来把一个个具体的知识点串起来,这样就很容易把握各知识点之间的内在逻辑联系,也就不容易遗漏重要的知识点了。
3.采用比较与分析的方法。财政税收法有很多复杂的法律制度,对于这些较复杂的制度要注意采用分析的方法,把它们分解为一些具体的制度,通过对具体制度的把握来掌握基本的理论。财政税收法中有许多相似的法律制度,特别是各个具体的税种法之间具有一些共同性的法律制度,当然也具有许多不同的法律制度,对于这些异同都需要通过比较的方法来掌握。通过综合运用比较和分析的方法就可以较好地把握财政税收法的基本法律制度。


课程主讲教授简介

课程

简    介

 

 

 

刑法分论

梁根林,男,1964年出生于江苏省武进。1980年考入北京大学法律系,先后获得法学学士,刑法学硕士,刑法学博士学位。2001年至2002年,赴德国图宾根大学访问。2005年被聘为教授,博士生导师。
主要研究方向为刑法学、刑事政策学。
代表性著作及论文:专著《刑罚结构论》(北京大学出版社)和教材《刑法分论》(人民法院出版社),参著《美国经济犯罪与经济刑法》、《经济犯罪学》、《青少年违法犯罪的原因与对策》等著作,参编《新刑法教程》、《中国刑法论》、《刑法学概论》等教材,在《法学研究》、《中国法学》、《中外法学》等核心期刊发表学术论文近40篇,荣获北京大学文科科研成果一等奖、中国法学会刑法学研究会优秀论文(1984-1999)一等奖。连续三年当选为北京大学法学院学生自由投票选出的“北大法学院十佳教师”。
主要社会兼职为:中国刑法学研究会副秘书长,曾经以学者身份挂职担任北京市东城区检察院主管刑检工作的副检察长。

 

 

 

 

 


刘凯湘,男,1964年12月2日出生,湖南省攸县人,汉族,北京大学法学院教授、博士生导师。兼任中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会仲裁员,北京仲裁委员会仲裁员,中国法学会民法研究会常务理事,北京市民商法研究会常务理事,中华全国律师协会涉外业务委员会委员,中华全国律师协会教育委员会委员,国家司法考试命题专家委员会委员等。
1984年毕业于西南政法大学,获法学学士学位;1987年毕业于北京大学,获法学硕士学位;2001年毕业于北京大学,获法学博士学位。硕士研究生毕业后在北京商学院法律系任教,1992年晋升为副教授,1998年晋升为教授。1999年5月调任北京大学法学院。研究领域为民商法,包括物权法、合同法、公司法、合伙法、信托法等,兼及经济法、国际经济法。
代表性著作有:《契约观念与秩序创新》(北京大学出版社,1993);《市场与契约化》(北京大学出版社,1996);《民法学》(中国法制出版社,2000);《民法总论》(北京大学出版社,2006);“论民法的性质与理念”(《法学论坛》2000年第1期);“论基于所有权的物权请求权”(《法学研究》2003年第1期);“物权请求权基础理论研究”(《民商法论丛》第28卷,2003年);“公司债权人保护制度研究”(《商法研究》第1辑,2000年);“论商法的性质、依据与特征”(《现代法学》1997年第2期);等。
主要获奖情况:全国优秀教师荣誉称号(1992年);北京市优秀青年骨干教师(1993年);全国优秀法学图书奖(1995年);中国法学会优秀论文奖(1996年);北京大学法学院十佳教师奖(2001年、2002年)等。
1992年—1994年曾两次赴英国兰开夏中央大学进修、访问。1995年—1996年曾两次以访问学者身份赴芬兰讲授中国商法。2005年—2006年以高级访问学者身份赴美国范德比尔特大学学习和讲学。曾随司法部代表团访问并考察日本、美国法学教育、司法考试与律师制度。
主要学术观点:
私法乃万法之源。
民法乃市民社会之法。
私权神圣、私法自治乃民法之理念与性格。
民法为商品经济一般规律与人性一般要求之反映。
中国固无民法观念基础,却有民法制度之渊源。
观之当代,商法于市场经济之重要性愈益凸显,私法乃由民法与商法共同构成。
培育当代中国市民社会之经济基础与文化理念对中国之现代化至为重要。
人身权法为民法之根本,财产权法为民法之精华。

 

 



王磊,安徽合肥人,生于1965年4月。北京大学法学院本科、硕士和博士。1990年留校任教,北大法学院教授。1996年曾作为国际访问者出访美国。2000年至2001年在瑞典斯德哥尔摩大学作访问学者。
主要著作:
1.《中华人民共和国宪法释义》(副主编,人民出版社)
2.《宪法学》(律师专业,北京大学出版社,合作)
3.《中华人民共和国宪法释义》(人民出版社1993年出版)
4.《宪法的司法化》(中国政法大学出版社2000年出版)
5.《布什诉戈尔》(北京大学出版社2002年6月第1版)
主要论文:
1.《论我国的宪法解释机构》(载《中外法学》1993年第6期)
2.《对行政立法权的宪法学思考》(载《中外法学》1998年第5期)
3.《宪法解释的基本理论》(《中国法学》2002年12月9日特刊)
4.《宪法实施的新探索》(《中国社会科学》2003年第2期)

 

 

 

 

财政税收法

刘剑文,男,法学博士、博士后,北京大学法学院教授、博士生导师。兼任世界税法协会(ITLA)主席、中国财税法教育研究会会长、中国法学会财税法学研究会副会长、北京市财税法与金融法研究会副会长、中国科技法学会常务理事、中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会仲裁员、北京仲裁委员会仲裁员、《财税法论丛》主编、《税法学研究文库》总主编、《月旦财经法杂志》总编辑、“中国财税法网”创立人,国家税务总局“世界银行贷款项目”中方首席专家、国家税务总局“联合国开发总署资助项目” 中方首席专家。
1983年在安徽财贸学院获法学学士学位,1986年在中国政法大学获法学硕士学位,1997年在武汉大学获法学博士学位。1997年在北大法学院做博士后研究。研究方向为:税法、国际税法、经济法、民商法。
代表著作包括:《税法基础理论》、《税法学》、《财政税收法》、《个人所得税法》、《所得税法导论》、《国际税法》、《国际所得税法研究》、《经济法》、《知识经济与法律变革》、《WTO与中国法律改革》、《私有财产法律保护》等。目前已经出版专著、合著、主编、副主编著作20多部,在《中国法学》、《中外法学》、《法学研究》等期刊上发表论文100余篇,曾主持完成十余项国家级和省部级的科研项目。
所获奖励主要包括:司法部优秀科研成果二等奖;安子介国际贸易优秀著作三等奖;武汉市人民政府社科优秀成果二等奖;中国民法学经济法学研究会研究成果二等奖;中国财税法学研究会优秀论文一等奖;北京市社科优秀成果二等奖;中国社会科学院法学所研究成果奖等。

 

 

中国法制史

赵昆坡,1970年北京大学法律系毕业。北大法学院教授,中国法律史学会理事。学术特长为中国法制史、中国经济立法史。
主要著作:
1.《中国法制史简编》(肖永清主编,本人参编),1982年山西人民出版社出版。
2.《中国古代案例选》(合编),1981年山西人民出版社出版。
3.《中国近代案例选》(与俞建平合编),1983年山西人民出版社出版。
4.《中国革命根据地案例选》(与俞建平合编),1984年山西人民出版社出版。
5.《建国以来法制建设记事》(合编),1986年河北人民出版社出版。
6.《中国法制史》(蒲坚主编,本人参编),1987年光明日报出版社出版。该书获1992年北京大学优秀教材奖。
7.《中国法制史简明教程》(与蒲坚合著),1987年北京大学出版社出版。

 

《大学英语????
测试题(?????? )答题纸

说明:本答题纸须复印后填写,每套题一张。

 

教学中心: 姓名: 学号:

I.单项选择(每题2分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________
6__________7__________8__________9__________10__________

II.改错(每题2分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________
6__________7__________8__________9__________10__________

III.完形填空(每题1分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________
6__________7__________8__________9__________10__________
11__________12__________13__________14__________15__________
16__________17__________18__________19__________20__________

IV.阅读理解(每题2分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________

V.作文(30分)

 

 

《大学英语1》
测试题( )答题纸

说明:本答题纸须复印后填写,每套题一张。

教学中心: 姓名: 学号:

I.单项选择(每题2分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________
6__________7__________8__________9__________10__________

II.完形填空(每题3分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________
6__________7__________8__________9__________10__________

III.阅读理解(每题4分)
1__________2__________3__________4__________5__________

IV.写作(30分)


 



 
 
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